Coastal Resources in Tanzania include many resources which are wealthiest like valuable fishes and fishing grounds, sea water, mangrove forests, Beaches grounds and coral reefs. Tanzania coastal land and sea cover a length of 1,424km from Tanzania Kenya boarder to Tanzania - Mozambique boarder according to (www.indexmundi.com/Tanzania/Coastal.html) which shows a greater extent of vast resources.The whole coastal land of Tanzania covers regions like Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Lindi and Mtwara with people almost identified by the Swahili culture.
These resources if are well managed and used efficiently are very important in boosting people's livelihood and Country's economy as they have different function taking mangrove forest as an example, have functions like provision of Timber, protect east land with Tanzania and cyclones, Tannin, firewood, charcoal making, Poles, traditional medicine and habitat also sea water for salt making; coral reef for cement making; fishing ground and farming like sea weeding.
To date, Tanzania's coastal resources still mis-managed under utilized and over utilized which implies meaningless to people livelihood and Country's economy due to the following reasons taking Mkinga district in Tanga as a case study, reveal that.
Huge stocks of fishes are grabbed due to the presence of many rivals in Tanzania sea side. According to HAMZA ALI a popular fisher man in Making (MOA) after a long conversation speak about Kenyan fisherman who crows boarder to Tanzania ocean and practice fishing without no license, other are huge fishing without vessel from unknown Countries practices fishing during the night. He added that once they appear in a certain area no fish remain uncaptured as a result local people yields decline.
Laziness, a culture of coastal people at Mkinga in Tanga. According to Hamza many beekeeping groups were given beehives as incentives from the district government to install in the mangrove forests but up to date those beehives are stored in a go down at MOA village
Deforestation, through mangrove forests are very important and serve about 150,000 people in Tanzania (TCMP 2001) their still deforested to a large extent in Mkinga District illegally then exported to Kenya, Other used in charcoal making and as a building facilities
Under fishing, many fishing vessels are very traditional and have low fish captured ability like “Mashua or Ngalawa” which can't work in deep sea which in turns led to big and valuable fish species to remain in water uncaptured then not beneficial to local people livelihood and Country's economy.
Poor local initiatives to conserve the coastal resources especially to local government and individuals to care coastal resources. Usually initiatives started donors and higher level which could not work efficiently on local resources, for instance many project on conservation of coastal resources are initiated by donors from external Countries.
Coastal land and island Mandated to foreigners, According to Hamza the island along the coastal of Mkinga District in the Indian Ocean is sold to foreigners. He said “one of the Island found nearly to the sea shore is given to Stephan a white man who intend to build a hotel tourism recreation site in long run will contribute to the capital flight in a long run.
However there are some efforts made y the government since 1994 by inducing mangrove management project worked upon Tanzania's Indian coastline; but to date there are also efforts from ENVIROCARE in collaboration with TACOECONT and FEA on restoration of mangrove forests in mkinga district. The project embedded with other micro income generation through beekeeping and see weeding farming.
The following below are measures that can be done towards managing and conserving the coast resources not only to Mkinga coast resources but also to other resources found along the cost purposefully to make the local people and the country as a whole.
Government participation in with the local people should take the burden to ensure 600 miles security in the sea. Nevertheless, to provide license to Kenyans for capturing fishes per given quotas/standards.
Awareness should be raised to coastal people to value their resources and further to know products and bi-products obtained from the coastal resources and utilize it efficiently.
Local people should be prioritized on possessing resources e.g. islands and incentives such as recommended nets and beehives should be given to fishers and farmers to rise income generation and reduce deforestation and promote sustainable fishing.
To conclude, I as YET I advice other YETs, experts and local people to advocacy on any problem appeared to resources since charity begins at home and don't let people from outside the country to determine our resources future.
Prepared by: yohana kadiva.