Tuesday, December 8, 2009
While going through this reading the issue is seen as multifaceted, contradictory and challenging one. Literally weak/poor assessment upon economic value and environmental integrity in relation to the project existence is one of the basic image/picture that came in my mind: - For example; while reopening of the oil plant has rescued 150 employment positions lost after the first lockdown of the plant, but on the other side without proper sewage treating system as unsolved problem, the plant will continue spilling caustic soda into farms and water sources/catchment areas in which this is not only jeopardizing the life of the people but extremely harmful to the environment.........IT'S TIME FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CSOs AND OTHER PARTNERS TO DUG UP THE ROOT COURSES OF ALL THESE AS SEEN TO BE EMBRACED WITH ALL NEMC'S HANDS whether Political Interest is "IN" or "OUT!!"
Below here I have attached the article that I made comments on as it was published in the citizen’s news page www.thacitizen.co.tz .
Reopening of oil plan sparks storm
By Anthony Mayunga, Bunda
An environmental activist is up in arms over the decision by the National Environment Management Council (Nemc) to allow Bunda Oil Industries Limited resume operations before constructing a sewerage treatment plant.
He called on the relevant state organs to investigate the council for making decisions that were "harmful to the environment and public health".
The cooking oil processing mill is spilling caustic soda into farms, residential areas and the Kyandere catchment area, which serves as a water source to Migungani, Butakare and Tairo areas.
A lawyer-cum-human rights activist from the Lawyer?s Environmental Action Team (Leat), Mr Tundu Lisu, accused Nemc officials of caring for their own interests, contending that the council had performed poorly in enforcing the environmental law.
"The law used to close the factory gives Nemc the mandate to take legal action, yet they have allow the factory to resume operation without a written document. What kind of a picture does such a verbal permission paint?" he queried in a telephone interview.
Mr Lisu explained that with the 2004 environmental law, Nemc could close a factory that was polluting the environment and direct the management to restore the environment and to compensate all those affected by the environmental damage.
"It's time community members stood up for their rights by marching to the factory to demand its closure. Nemc does not seem interested in protecting them," he said.
He was surprised that the Government was silent on the development.
A retired district commissioner, Mr Elias Misana, who serves as chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) Elders Council in Bunda District, said he was also surprised by the Nemc decision because the factory had not rectified the problems that led to its closure in the first place.
One of the residents whose crops have significantly been affected by the environmental pollution caused by the factory, Mr Kichere Gikaro, also blamed the state agency.
The chairman of the district council Committee on Finance and Environment, Mr Julius Maregeri, confirmed that the council had been kept in the dark.
"The Nemc officials should strike a balance between people?s lives and all those using water from Lake Victoria and profits accrued from the factory," he said.
The chairman of the Parliamentary Committee on Lands, Natural Resources and Environment, Mr Job Ndugai, said he was not aware that the factory had resumed operation, as he was not served with any letter.
Nemc coordinator Anna Mdamo said her office was directed by the Government to allow the factory resume operation, lest workers of the factory lost their jobs. She said the decision was well intentioned. There are some 150 workers at plant.
The district environmental officer declined to comment.
Investigation at the factory, which was established in 1997, indicated that the factory had neither a sewerage treatment plant nor site for disposing solid waste.
Sunday, November 22, 2009
The environmentalist was very upset, and looked around until he found the farmer. He then asked him why he had an eagle among his chickens. The farmer looked at him and couldn’t understand the question. – That is no eagle, he said. It is born and raised as a chicken, and as you can see, it behaves like a chicken. Then it is a chicken.
The environmentalist was quite shocked, and asked the farmer if he could test the eagle flying. The farmer just laughed at him, because obviously, the eagle couldn’t fly.
The environmentalist insisted, and so the farmer let him go and get the eagle-chicken and carry it out on his arm. But the bird was just very afraid, and if the environmentalist hadn’t had a thick leather piece around his arm, he would have been severely hurt. The eagle wouldn’t fly, and he had to let it back in.
- Just like I told you! That stupid creature is no eagle anymore. It cannot fly, because then it would have left long time ago, said the farmer with a smile on his face. But the environmentalist wouldn’t give up. He asked the farmer to try once more, maybe running with it around the farm, making it feel the wind in the feathers. The farmer just looked at him and couldn’t see any reason for it, but wouldn’t stop that strange environmentalist either. So the environmentalist got the bird and started running around the farm with it, feeling the strong grip in his arm. But no way, the bird wouldn’t let go.
The farmer thought that the environmentalist now would give up. But no, he wanted to try again. -Let me go to that hill behind the farm, he said, and then I am sure the eagle will fly. And the farmer couldn’t but let him try; he knew what would be the outcome and sat down to wait.
At the top of the hill the environmentalist lifted his arm with the eagle, showing it the mountains, the forests, the lakes and a river in the distance. They could also see the farm far below them. – Now, go, show him, and show us, you are an eagle and no chicken!
First the eagle took an even stronger grip around the man’s arm. But then it seemed he straightened his neck and looked around in a new way, like he was seeing the world for the first time. Then he carefully stretched out his wings, like he was discovering new parts of his own body. And when the environmentalist lifted him even higher, he all of a sudden let go of the arm and started flying. At first he would lose height, almost hitting the ground below them. But then his wings started working, lifting him higher and higher, carrying him high above the hills, the treetops and the mountains, disappearing from the sight of the environmentalist.
It would happen that the eagle would fly back to his chicken farm, even longing for the security and simplicity of the life behind the fence, where food and shelter was provided at all time. But still he knew that he actually was an eagle, born to fly high, to hunt for his own food and to live the free life he was created to live.
Wednesday, November 11, 2009
Then all the tortoise were gathered under the tree which has blessed fruits, the fist tortoise start climb the tree, other tortoise begin to throwing shocking words to him so that it can lose hope and step down, they say “your not able to reach on the top” your just a tortoise.. Who told you that a tortoise can climb a tree...”” it is impossible for tortoise to climb a tree my dear, we all going to die because no tortoise can climb this tree and pick the bless fruit and save our lives!!! They say to him loudly. Poor tortoise loose hope and fail to climb and step down… The second one try to climb but he fail to go far because he listen those terrible words from other tortoises, then follow the third one... the fourth and the fifth but all didn’t manage to reach on top of tree because they loose courage and step down.. …….!!!!
But the last one who was very weak and very sick because of the disease move very slowly, start to climb slowly and all tortoise community suddenly laugh at him, and make same noise told him your so fun, they say “”oooh… poor sick little tortoise you better not even try to climb because your nothing but a looser you cant climb that tree!!! All strong tortoises fail to climb how could you??””” They continue to make noises but the little tortoise continue to climb slowly and he reach on top of tree, pick up bless fruits and eat, then pick many fruits for others too…
Finally he step down and all the tortoise surprise and asking him how he get there after all shocked words and noises from them?? He say ooh I didn’t heard anything from you because I was a deaf, after eat a bless fruits cured me and now I have the sense of hearing again!!! And all the communities’ member calls him a HERO!! TORTOISES CAN CLIMB A TREE. YES THEY CAN!!.
Despite of majority of Tanzanians being unaware of other common environmental terms such as Climate Change, CDM and Kyoto Protocol, there comes other new term REDD. The question comes, is REDD a solution to emission problem from deforestation and forest degradation or confusion to peoples mind or adding more problem to their life? Is it going to be accepted by these local communities? What are the convincing reasons for its acceptance especially to local communities?
The term REDD has been new even to the educated individuals not only uneducated local people. Today if you ask a graduate what is REDD, about 90% will say they don’t know or have no idea. This reveals that the song of REDD is heard and understood by minority who are mostly officers at higher levels in the Government, private sectors, CSOs and policy makers.
If the song is about Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, and the major expected role players of it are the local communities who have been living with/close to the forests for more than 100 years, then how will it work out implementing something they are not familiar with? This means the local communities/indigenous people are the main responsible for either conserving or destroying the forests through their daily living activities. So making these indigenous people understand the concept of REDD is a big step forward toward achieving the goals of REDD.
If the initiatives for REDD will be taken in a non-participatory manner with the communities, there is a great danger of its failure or not achieving well. The participatory means should as well put clear the issue of benefit sharing to these local communities, which has been a debating issue to date. This means, convincing someone to opt for alternative means of living instead of exploiting from the forests such as doing small business that can generate some money for their daily basic needs and other compulsory expenditures.
Serious determination of communities towards REDD is an obligatory issue if it means for achieving its goals. I believe that the determination can only be through understanding well the whole process of REDD and community involvement by the local communities themselves.
A number of International and National conferences/workshops and seminars have been taking place as a preparation process for the 15th Conference Of Parties (COP 15) on December 2009 in Copenhagen sharing and discussing different matters, problems and challenges on Climate Change. The Conference is held every year under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to discuss some national and international environmental issues of concern relevant to climate change.
The question comes; do the local communities have information on what is taking place at higher level? Or does the feedback from the national and international conferences/workshops/seminars penetrate down to local communities? The truth is, only few officers at District level are at least aware of what is going on at the national and/or international level in Environmental aspect.
There comes a need for Young Environmental Trainees (YETs) who are young, energetic, experienced and determined to work with local communities. These should go to the communities directly conduct some trainings to raise awareness and updated them with current environmental issues discussed at both national and international levels that touch their lives. I believe YETs being young and energetic can work properly with communities than old officers who prefer to stay in the office rather than going to field where there is a need for their service.
YETs should be facilitated, enabled and /or capacitate enough to perform this job to link and fill the gap that exist between top and bottom people in our country. YETs are change agents.
Tuesday, November 10, 2009
GSTF kupitia ufadhili wa shirika la kimataifa WWF kwa kusaidiana na wadau wengine imebaini kuwepo kwa changamoto kubwa inayopelekea kurudisha nyuma jitihada zinazofanywa na wanaharakati wa mazingira za uoteshaji wa miche ya miti ya aina mbalimabali ikiwemo jamii ya matunda kama vile michungwa malimao, miembe na mikwaju. Hatua hii imefuatia kutokana na kijiji hiyo kukumbwa na ukame na kupelekea shughuli za kiuzalishaji kushuka kwa kiwango kikubwa. Kwani asilimia 90% ya wakazi wa Mikumi hutegemea uzalishaji unaotokana na kilimo ilikujipatia kipato.
Katika kukabiliana na changamoto ya ukame, GSTF imeanzisha mradi wa upandaji miti kupitia kaya kwa kusaidiana na kamati za mazingira katika kijiji hicho. Hivyo katika hatua ya awali katika utekelezaji mradi, wanakamati walipewa mbegu ili wazioteshe.
Uvamizi wa mbulumundu umekuwa ukienda sambamba na jitihada za uoteshaji wa miche na kurudisha nyuma ukuaji wa miche hiyo.
Panzi hao wekundu wajulikanao kwa jina la Mbulumundu wamekuwa wakishambulia majani ya miche hasa majani laini yanayopatikana katika hatua za awali za uotaji wa miti. Bi Selina (mwanakamati) ameeleza akisema “Panzi hawa huwa wanahama wakiwa katika mamia au maelfu toka sehemu isio na mimea na kwenda sehemu inapoota mimea ilikujipatia chakula”. Ameendelea kueleza “… hii ni kutokana na ukame uliokithili uliosababishwa na kukauka kwa uoto wa asili hivyo mbulumundu wameamua kuvamia vitalu hivi’
Richa ya mbulumundu kushambulia vitaru vya miti, jitihada za uoteshaji miti zimezaa matunda. Kwani hivi sasa miche zaidi ya elfu moja (1000) imeoteshwa katika viriba, tayari kawa kuwasambazia wananchi ili waipande katika mvua za mwanzo.
GSTF kwa kushirikiana na wanakamati wa mazingira wamejipanga kupambana na mbulumundu kwa kuwatika mbegu nyingi za miti mara mvua za awali zitakaponyesha. Kwakuwa utafiti wa awali umeonesha kuwa panzi hao hufa kwa wingi kipindi cha mvua. Pia kuchipua kwa uoto wa asili kutapelekea panzi hao kwenda maeneo hayo na kutoa fulsa kwa mbegu za miti kuota vizuri katika vitalu na viriba.
Jitihada hizi zinafaa kuigwa na wadau mbalimbali , hasa katika masuala ya mazingira ilikukabiliana na mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi yanayojitokeza hivisasa. Hasa katika katika kuwashirikisha wanajamii kupanda miti iliwamiliki misitu binafsi kwa matumi mbalimbali
Monday, October 19, 2009
Biofuels were then and continue to be in many respects hyped as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based transport fuels. The United States, the EU and other OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries initiated legislation to encourage its production. They also set mandatory targets. The EU set a binding target to replace 20 per cent of fossil fuels with biomass, hydro, wind and solar by 2020. Each member state is also required to replace 10 per cent of its transport fuel as well. It is this 10 per cent target that is a cause for concern and is partly conditioned on the commercial viability of second-generation biofuels. Second-generation biofuels are mainly made from lignocellulosic materials like wood and straw. First-generation biofuels are mainly ethanol from grains, sugar crops and biodiesel from oil seeds or from recycled cooking oil.
Sweden, for instance, has set a 40 per cent target for 2020 and a new government bill requires its transport sector to be fossil-free by 2030. While such initiatives may be applauded, Sweden is as a result investing heavily in research and influencing EU-wide policy that provides financial incentives for companies to buy up land in Africa for biofuel production. Two Swedish biofuel companies, SweTree Technologies and SEKAB, currently sit on the industry-dominated board of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). The EBTP have privileged access to European Commission decision-making and help shape research direction and spending of public money. SweTree Technologies, for instance, is researching second-generation biofuels by genetically modifying trees for fuel conversion. SweTree’s director, Björn Hägglun, also happens to be the chief director of WWF (World Wildlife Fund) Sweden, only one of only two NGOs that has openly admitted its involvement with the EBTP. Second-generation biofuels are now mandated to produce twice as much energy compared to first-generation biofuels in meeting the 10 per cent EU-wide transport target.
Exporting biofuels or feedstocks from developing countries to the EU will push up food prices and hurt poor consumers. Studies and countless media reports link biofuel plantations with a number of destructive conditions that directly undermine their potential, not to mention ethics. For instance, the EU has a contractual obligation to import sugar from ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) states entering into an EPA (economic partnership agreement). But there are no clear legal mandates to determine the difference between 'environmentally sound' and 'environmentally damaging' imports.
As such, European companies are scrambling for a slice of African soil. The financial incentives along with home policies drive the business fury and yet, according to a report by the European Parliament, only a tiny percentage of biofuel is imported from Africa because of high tariffs. The United Nations FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) along with the IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development) and the IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) conducted a study that looks at the impact of land acquisition in Mali, Ghana, Sudan, Ethiopia and Madagascar. Since 2004, close to 2.5 million (ha) hectares of land – excluding land allocations below 1,000 ha – have been appropriated by foreign acquisition in these countries. Two-thirds of 3 billion people survive on around 500 million parcels of land less than two hectares in size. Most of the land claimed by foreign acquisition was already in use by local people. Women, who are the main food producers, were more easily driven out due to discrimination. In Tanzania, a sugarcane plantation for biofuel in the Wami basin displaced 1,000 farmers. The results are disheartening as people end up in over-populated urban centres and their outlying slums.
Management and conservation of wildlife under local governments
(district level) is questionable due to lack of gears to manage them in
the authority they follow.
According to Tanzanian Wildlife Conservation Act, there are four
agencies that are entrusted to manage wildlife in the country. These
are Wildlife division that manage wildlife in Game Reserves, Tanzania
National Park managing wildlife in National parks, Ngorongoro
Conservation Area Authority that manage wildlife in Ngorongoro
Conservation Area as well as Local Government Authorities that
manages wildlife in Open Areas as well as in Game Controlled Areas.
The above three agencies are well equipped in term of human
resources, vehicles as well as weapons to protect and manage the
wildlife. This is not the case once it comes to local government
authority whereby it is a tradition to find district with wildlife to
manage but without enough human resources and other protective
gears to be used to management purposes.
A good example is in Mkinga District in Tanga region whereby like
other district in the country Mkinga manages Umba Game Controlled
Area, the game area bordering Kenya. The district has two game
officers who have been recently employed to exercise their duties.
They are actually working in easier said than done environment as
they do not have any game scouts nor any weapon or vehicles to
manage wildlife they are entitled to.
This has resulted in number of human wildlife conflicts between the
communities living adjacent to the Umba Game Controlled area and
animals especially elephants. Elephants once invade the farms they
usually raid crops to large extent as no one is chasing them away. This
has also unstopped the extermination of other animal species due to
uncontrolled hunting that do not follow the principle of sustainable
hunting and other hunting procedures that any hunter is supposed to
As we are now in the hunting term, many hunters are now operating in
Umba Game Controlled Area, but with no one to escort them. It has
been a long-established in this Game Controlled Area where hunters
hunt beyond their hunting quotas, hunting without following the
principle of sustainable hunting as well as using weapon not
recommended so as to easy hunt and catch the animals. I think it
won’t be wrong if at all we refer it as a legally poaching activity.
Hunters are given licenses to hunt and they go in the Game Controlled
area to hunt without game scouts to supervise them. It is also said that
some of the hunters do extend their hunting activities to Mkomazi
National Park. Not only that but also hunters who are given licenses do
extend their permit and it is rarely to find them being fined of their
offense. It is not easy to understand this situation happening in the
country as now the world is shouting on conservation of natural
resources for people’s development. This is the Game Controlled Area
that I think its presence does not meet people’s development rather
benefiting a group of people who lobby the poor for their benefits. As I
see in the near future we will be not having any animal in Umba Game
Controlled Area if the current situation proceeds.
As the new Wildlife Act number 5 of 2009 is in its implementation
process, I argue to the government to find a way of incorporating this
problem facing wildlife under local government authority so that they
can be protected as those in other wildlife management agencies. I
frankly call upon the ministry to look this problem with its responsible
eye to rescue the animals in this Game Controlled Area for the National
interest. On the other hand the governments should equip the local
government authority in term of human resources as well as other
resources including vehicles and weapons to better manage the
wildlife they are supposed to manage for the national interest and not
Sunday, October 11, 2009
As it is usually perceived by different people who practice laws that the Laws are
there or created to protect or save the interest of the ruling class in any community.
This concept has been mainstreamed in different places where you find two groups
of people one with power and the other without power but claiming to have equal
rights before their laws and regulations that guide them. In executing these laws,
normally the group with higher power in favored while the other being oppressed.
In Tanzania for example this kind of circumstance is also prominent where recently
we have witnessed how the ruling class has been favored once it come that it has to
be hold responsible. We all know how those who were involved in EPA scandal are
being treated in the name of executing the cases against them. At one time our
president said that we are still doing investigations so that we become satisfied in
order to avoid ill-treating anyone involved in the scandal. The concept of evading illtreating
people charged with cases comes in place at a time we have people with
power in the country and it has not been observed when trying normal people in our
country. Not only that but also the Richmond scandal that involved different
governmental officials is a mysterious since these people has not being dealt and
they have been left in our government offices darkening them with their
misconducts. But this is not the case once it come to barefooted normal people in
the country where they are brutally treated if involved in any contravene. This
brings the sense of discrimination in our community, the act that separates us from
one another of which our father of nation Mwalimu did not allow it to mainstream
within our communities.
In his life, the friend of our late father of nation Mzee Nelson Mandela also faced the
same situation once he was in a condition in which a prefect and a normal African
student with the same offence but receiving different treatment as far as
punishment was concerned. A normal African student was brutally punished while
the prefect left free.
During his second year at Healdown School, Mandela was appointed as a prefect. A
prefect had different responsibilities and the newest prefect had the least desirable
duties. In the beginning, he supervised a group of student who worked as window
cleaners during their manual work time in the afternoon, and led them to different
windows each day. He soon graduated to next level of responsibility, which was
night duty. He says he had never had a problem in staying up all night, but during
one such night he was put in moral quandary that remained in his memory. They
had no toilets in their dormitories, but they had an outhouse that was about
hundred feet behind the residence.
On rainy evening, when student woke up in the mid night, they wouldn’t want to
trudge through the grass and mud to the outhouse. Instead, students would stand
on the veranda and urinate into the bushes. This practices, however was strictly
prohibited and against regulations and one job of the prefect was to take down the
names of the students who indulged it. One night, he was on duty when it was
pouring with rains and he caught quite few students perhaps fifteen or so – relieving
themselves from the veranda. Towards dawn he saw a chap come out, look both
ways and stand at one end of the veranda to urinate. He made his way over to him
and announced that he had been caught, whereupon he turned round and he
realized that he was a prefect. He was in predicament. In laws and philosophy, one
ask quis custodiet ipsos custode(who will guard the guardian themselves). If the
prefect does not obey the rules, how can the student be expected to obey? In
effect, the prefect was above the law because he was the laws, and one prefect was
not supposed to report another. He thought it was not fair to avoid reporting the
prefect and mark down the fifteen others, so he simply tore up his list and charged
no one. Can we do as Mzee Mandela did in those days? Probably yes as easy said
than done. Well I think if at all we fall what the Laws states, we will be at another
level in implementing them. If is that the case I argue our government to treat its
people equally without discrimination that separate one another.
Wednesday, October 7, 2009
The ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (MNRT) has been locked out of Sh110 billion in development aid funding due to corruption concerns in its echelons.
SOURCE; THE CITIZEN
Bhusegena is the famous place in Ukerewe District in Mwanza region especially to people living at Nkilizya village. The area got its famous due to its fishing activities that is been conducted by most of people from Nkilizya, Bukongo, Nansio, Hamkoko, Kihungura, Malegea and Bhutiliti villages in search of earning their life. Not only is that but also the area where most of cattle keepers form Kihungura, Nkilizya, and Bhutiliti villages and their outskirt use its water's edge for the cattle to drink water from lake Victoria. I also personally in those days used to fish at the area as well as sending cattle to drink water when I was looking after cattle in my childhood. It was from the late 1980’s up to the late 1990’s.
Moving to Bhusegena we used to cross a thick forest that was famous with its name Ekibhila Cha Magafu, a kerewe language meaning a thick forest that belonged to Mr. Magafu another kerewe name that simply mean cotton. Mr. Magafu was leaving nearby that forest and he was the one who used to manage the forest. He passed away in 1999 as I can remember when I was just in form one. The forest was just one kilometre away from Bhusegena lakeshore where most fishing activities are carried out. It was believed that a big snake used to stay in that forest. Saying big snake in Ukerewe you simply mean a Python. In Kerewe tribe a python was believed to be their god and no one dared to kill it. If it could kill and swallow your goat, cattle or whatever at your home, you simply take it in the bag and send it to the forest or in the bush without harming it. And those who dared to kill it, where supposed to call their kids the python name. That is why today we have names like Nyasato, Nansato and Lusato which are all names of python. Python in Kerewe language is known as ensato. If you happened to contravene the rule, they believed that you could die or your kids could be dying if born. So they all obeyed not to kill it, respected its habitats and if it happen you have killed it you followed the rule by naming your kids the name of the python.
Since the forest was the homeland of Kerewe’s god it was highly respected and no one attempted to harm it, may it be cutting trees or putting it on fire. The forest was genuinely conserved and was a source of water to Nansyana River the river that used to pour its water in Lake Victoria at Bhusegena shore. Following conservation of Kibhila forest that thickened it, most of people were fearful to cross the forest until being in groups. I personally used to run when I was alone to cross it.
As time went and following the introduction of Christianity, belief that was held to python started to decline. This was followed with the mass killing of pythons and destruction of their habitat. Ekibhila cha magafu was also one of the python habitats that were destroyed by people by starting putting it on fire in search of killing the python that made the forest fearful. And following also population increase in Ukerewe by people migrating to the Island from other areas, the forest has now been cleared by people opening farms. More vegetable gardens have been opened in the forest as well as sugarcane farms by people who are most of them migrant from other areas. This has resulted to the dryness of Nansyana River and other small tributaries those were pouring water into the River. Even those who opened vegetable gardens are now suffering were to get water for irrigation.
As we are now in the modernised word we can think of enhancing traditional believes that conserve environments by putting in place ways that will promote them.
Monday, September 21, 2009
Some where in Tanzania there is a community living in a particular area, the area is rich in natural resources such as forest and wildlife, the area was green with diverse of different plant species. This community who are local inhabitant(native) to this place they where utilizing this natural resources to meet their basic needs such as fire wood, building materials, fodder, medicine, fruits and etc.
Within this area there is forest which was reserved for spiritual matter as part of their tradition. The forest is managed by the local community guided with native law and custom and every one is abiding with this rules.
Due to the beauty scene of this area and weather one of investor was attracted and wants to take some part of this land .The investor follows all procedure and he was given part of this area. The investor starts to clear its land for preparation of Tea plantation.
During this process the investor commands workers to clear the other part which was not given by the government including the reserved forest. When they start to clear this land the community warns investor to leave aside reserved forest disdain and tell them I’m rich I can do anything.
Workers proceed with their activities and they managed to clear some part of forest. When they come for another day to finish remaining part they found that all tree where emerged. The investor was shocked with this situation but he did not give-up. Due to their understanding them though that if they clear all forest for one day no plant will emerge. They do so by using the advanced machine like bulldozer to clear the land. The next day they found that all tree where emerged as if there where nothing happen to that forest.
After all initiative and techniques to clearing fails the investor leave reserved forest as it is and the local community proceed to use this forest for the spiritual matter as usual.
Friday, September 18, 2009
Hivi sasa hali inatisha ukiangalia maeneo mbalimbali kuzunguka Tarafa hiyo. Katika maeneo hayo kumebakiwa nyasi kavu, maeneo ambayo yamechomwa moto pia miti michache inayoweza kuhesabika hata ukiwa umbali wa mita mia tatu (m.300) toka katika kila eneo la ekari ishirini. Shughuli mbalimbali zinazofanywa na binadamu imekuwa ni chanzo kikubwa cha kupoteza uoto huo. Hayo yalizungumzwa katika mkutano ulioendeshwa tarehe 12.09.2009 na asasi isiyo ya kiserikari ijulikanayo kama Greenbelt Schools Trust Fund (TSGF) kwa kudhaminiwa na WWF katika kata ya Mikumi.
Watu wamekuwa wakifanya shughuli zenye madhara katika mazingira ilikujipatia mahitaji yao ya kila siku. Shughuli hizo ni kama vile utengenezaji wa mkaa, ufugaji holela pamoja na kilimo cha kuhamahama. Hii inaonesha kwamba wenyeji hao hufanya shughuli ambayo itawaletea matunda haraka pasipo kufikiri hasara zinazojitokeza. Mjumbe mmoja wa kamati ya mazingira kutoka WWF Ndugu Angelus Runji amesema “Uwajibikaji mdogo wa wanajamii katika kuhifadhi mazingira ndio chanzo cha madhara mbalimbali kama vile umomonyoko wa udongo na ukame. Vilevile mwenekiti cha Mikumi Ndugu Idd Liko amesema” baadhi ya watu hujihusisha na uchimbaji wa udongo ilikutengeneza tofari, Pia hukata kuni kwajiri ya kuchomea tofari hizo”. Hali hii imedhihilika katika bonde la mto Ruhembe ambapo imepelekea udongo kupoteza rutuba.
Shughuli hizo zimepelekea kuwepo kwa uharibifu mkubwa wa misitu katika eneo la Mikumi na hatimae kuwepo kwa udongo usiofaa kwa kilimo pamoja na uhaba wa maji. Hali hii imeshuhudiwa na Katibu Mkuu wa Asasi moja isio ya kiserikali ijulikanayo kama Greenbelt Schools Trust Fund (GSTF) (Ndugu John Mengele) inayojishughulisha na mazingira amesema “Pia sababu nyingine inayopelekea uharibifu wa mazingira katika vyanzo vya maji ni kilimo holela cha umwagiliaji maji kinachoenda sambamba na ukataji wa miti kandokando ya mto Ruhembe”. Ameendelea kusema kwamba hapo awali mto huu ulikuwa ukijulikana kama Bustani ya asili ambapo ndizi zilijiotea zenyewe kando kando ya mto lakini hivi sasa eneo limekuwa kame.
Huu ni wakati muafaka kwa wanakijiji katika Tarafa ya Mikumi kuchukua hatua madhubuti kuzuia madhara ya uharibifu wa mazingira yanayojitokeza. Hatua hizo ni kama kupanda miti ya matunda, mbao na nguzo. Jitahada hizi zitapelekea kuinua kipato cha wanajamii kwa kuuza matunda, mbao pamoja na nguzo. Pia kutatua tatizo la uhaba wa maji.
Greenbelt Schools Trust Fund (GSTF), imeanzisha mradi wa upandaji miti hasa miti ya matunda kama vile miembe. Asasi hii imelenga kuhakikisha kwamba ifikapo mwaka 2012, kila familia imiliki miti hamsini (50) ya aina tofauti.hatua za mwanzo za kutekeleza mradi huo zimeonekana katika mkutano huo ambapo wanakamati waliridhia mradi huo na kupewa mbegu pamoja na miche ya miti wakapande. Jitihada hizi ziliungwa mkono na katibu tarafa wa Mikumi Ndugu Benjamin Mang’ara
Amesema “hiki kilichotokea leo sijawahi kukiona tangu nishike wadhifa huu katika tarafa hii, nidhahili kwamba jitihada hizi zitaboresha maisha ya watu na shughuli zao katika katika ngazi ya kata hata tarafa yetu ya Mikumi. Serikari pia imeona haja ya kuanzisha mpango wa muda mrefu wa upandaji miti ambapo kila familia inapaswa kupanda miti Kumi (10).” ameendelea kusema kwamba jamii ibadili tabia ili kuwepo matumizi endelevu ya rasilimali zetu na hatimaye kupunguza umasikini uliopo.
Hii ni dhahili kwamba hakuna kinachoweza/kitakachoweza kufanyika endapo jamii zetu hazitazingatia matumizi endelevu ya rasilimali tulizonazo.
Thursday, September 10, 2009
and death a destination
And life is a journey:
From childhood to maturity
and youth to age;
From innocence to awareness
and ignorance to knowing;
From foolishness to desecration
and then perhaps to wisdom.
From weakness to strength or
from strength to weakness
and often back again;
From health to sickness
and we pray to health again.
From offense to forgiveness
from loneliness to love
from joy to gratitude
from pain to compassion
from grief to understanding
from fear to faith.
From defeat to defeat to defeat
until looking backwards or ahead
We see that victory lies not
at some high point along the way
but in having made the journey
step by step
a sacred pilgrimage.
Birth is a beginning
and death a destination
And life is a journey;
A sacred journey to life everlasting.
REST IN PEACE. GODFREY TWEVE
Sunday, September 6, 2009
They will have babies if they go to worship there, but as times goes the mountain changed its kindness due to the disobedient of the community by breaking out the regulation or rules which were given to them by God like they use to sacrifice holly animals which to them refer as black goats and sheep and the one who are allowing to visit the place must be holly, also it was responsibility to Maasai tribe to protect the mountain and its environment. Due to this disobedient Maasai tribe started suffering because the special God who live in Oldonyo Lengai was angry and does not hear their voices anymore, from that time to now, maasai tribe believe that they are the one who made God who living in Oldonyo Lengai to release volcanic emission as they believe that God of mountain punished the community through hot volcanic emission in way that it explore, burn and killing livestock and people.
Tuesday, August 25, 2009
And this is the reason why Maasai tribe moves from one place to another to find pastures and water.
Monday, August 24, 2009
Fruits have started to be seen where most of her partners (environmental CSOs) have done a good job toward sustainable use of Natural resources on three sub-sectors (fisheries, forest and wildlife). This international Organization rendered grants to her partners form in year 2008/2009 based on the program known “Strengthening capacity to environmental CSOs in Tanzania”. Actually her dream has been seen to achieve. Hear I would like to share with you my follow Tanzanians on physical achievements which have seen;
WWF has worked with Journalist Environmental Team (JET) which has done a lot of activities in respect to environmental issues like raising awareness to individual by documenting different information relating to environmental bad practices for instance there is a newsletter titled “Stripping the gods naked” as it explains about illegal fishing around the coastal of Tanzania unfortunately amount to severe diminish of fishes while it people who are chief stakeholders remain in the dame of poverty.
Mr. Mushi (WWF staff) explained Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) have created awareness through rendering education to local communities on sustainable use of forest resources due to severe deforestation that occurs in Mkinga forest in Tanga region. TFCG has disseminated information to local communities publishing it through leaflets etc;
Further more, UNGO in Morogoro has created awareness to local communities on forest issues based on advocacy and lobbying. Mr. Venance (UNGO Project Officer) said “UNGO has achieved to create awareness on laws, policies and principles which we have but the majority of Tanzanians are not aware with. Together with, UNGO integrated Morogoro district authority (forest sector) on establishing guide centers so as to seize forest products that acquired illegally”. The same issue was worked by Tanzania Environmental Conservation group (TECG) that created attention to individual by raising awareness. Again, DECO came up with real situation of is happening at Kisalawe District following excessive Pugu degradation where people engage in sand mining.
On illegal fishing that happened in Tanga were people became aware as well as government authority as a result, constructive action taken to prohibit illegal fishing. The same issue on illegal fishing was worked by KIMWAM organization on how member communities can participate on sustainable fishing;
Also, Nature Scope worked on awareness creation in respect to laws and policies, in Njombe District-Iringa. Member communities have understood their role to participate in environmental decision making and sustainable use of natural resources.
Another interesting action done by WWF-TPO is about having a meeting with Environmental Parliamentary Committee where several environmental issues were discussed. For instance, the deforestation in Kazimzumbwi and Pugu forest. Miss Muhale said (one of WWF staff) “since parliaments were not aware on destructive practices in Kazimzumbwi and Pugu forest”. Hence the effort done by WWF in collaboration with its partners opened the door to government on undertaking measurable action.
With all the above successes that have been achieved by environmental CSOs, it is exactly that the objectives of WWF have started to bear fruits. I would like to congratulate WWF for your success efforts. We have learned from you and we are going to be your followers.
During the time the rain were available, we did not experience the rain problem as were experiencing today and wild animals were available at the area, once you go at the area you could enjoy seeing different type of animals and birds with different interesting colours. Birds were singing different beautiful songs so once you go there those birds would welcome you with those beautiful songs.
Now the situation has changed since people ignored our traditional and started cutting down those trees, then our gods become angry with us and now see how things has changed no that good greenish and more, water has become a serous problem and rainy is raining very hardily now, we are getting very few amount of rainfall now which did not even satisfy watering our crops and we are now welcoming a desert. This shows that our gods are angry with us as we made them migrate from their home area as those trees were cut down.
Now no confidential area for worshiping as we used the area before it was destroyed, just think what will happen after ten years to come what do you think you children will face. This shows how the modern culture has destroyed our culture, this is going to cost us, were going to face severe climate change. Real the situation is becoming worse and worse each day.
Remember this not each traditional culture is bad some are good and useful why are we abandoning our culture and praising the culture of others know what are we proud of if we are ignoring our own culture. We have good and unique things let us be proud of it and promote them, let us not be slaves of culture of others. Let’s put in mind that ours is ours and theirs is theirs.
Thursday, August 6, 2009
Vuguvugu la umuhimu wa kuhifadhi, kulinda na kusimamia kikamilifu utunzaji wa mazingira na matumizi ya rasilimali mbalimbali duniani limekuwa hai sana katika miaka ya karibuni hasa miaka ya 1990 na kuendelea. Vuguvugu hili ulimwenguni mwote lilianza tangu miaka ya 1970 hasa baada ya mkutano mkubwa wa Umoja wa Mataifa uliohusu mazingira na makazi ya watu huko Sweden mwaka 1972 katika mji wa Stockholm. Mkutano huo ulitoa tamko rasmi (Stockholm Declaration) lililosisitiza pamoja na mambo mengine umuhimu wa kuhifadhi mazingira ya mwanadamu ambayo ni chanzo kikubwa cha uhai wake. Miaka ishirini baadae, Mkutano mwingine wa kilele ulifanyika huko Rio de Jeneiro (Brazili) ambao pia uliweka changamoto kubwa katika suala zima la ulinzi, usimamizi na utumiaji endelevu wa mazingira na rasilimali tulizonazo.
Katika tamko lake (The Rio Declaration) mkutano huu ulisisitiza juu ya maendeleo endelevu ikiwa ni pamoja na kujali utunzaji wa mazingira kwa ajili ya vizazi vya sasa na vya baadae.Tamko hili lilisisitiza pia umuhimu wa kila nchi kuhakikikuwa shughuli zake za kimaendeleo hazileti madhara kwa mazingira yasiyorekebishika katika nchi au eneo jingine. Mkutano huu pia ulitanabaisha kuwa hali ya mazingira na rasilimali mbalimbali duniani ni tete (yaani si shwari kabisa). Kutokana na uharibifu uliokithiri wa mazingira dunia ilijikuta ikikabiliwa na changamoto za kina kama vile:-Mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi (Climate change), upotevu wa bio-anuai (Bio-Diversity loss), hatari za majagwa ( desertification) na uharibifu wa vyanzo vya maji safi . Mkutano wa Rio ulihitimishwa kwa kuundwa mikakati na mikataba muhimu ya kimataifa kuhusu mazingira. Mikataba hii ni ule unaohusu mabadiliko ya tabia ya hali ya nchi, (Climate change Convention), Mkataba unaohusu Bio-nuai (Bio-diversity Convention), na Ule wa kuthibiti hali ya Jangwa (Convention to combat Desertfication). Pia ilitengenezwa dira ya karne ya 21 (The Agenda 21) ambayo ni kama sera ya kimataifa kuhusu mazingira.
Kufuatia hali hii serikali mbalimbali ikiwemo ya Tanzania zililazimika kuingia katika harakati kubwa za kuleta maboresho au marekebisho mbalimbali ya mifumo, sera na sheria zinazohusu mazingira pamoja na kuhakikisha kuwa wanajamii wanahusika kikamilifu katika suala zima la uhifadhi wa mazingira. Jambo hili linatokana na ukweli kuwa upo umuhimu wa kufanya mabadiliko katika sheria na mifumo iliyorithiwa toka kwa wakoloni na kuiona jamii kuwa wadau wanaotakiwa kushirikishwa kwa umakini. Faida za dhana shirikishi ni dhahiri ikiwa ni pamoja na kupunguza gharama za uendeshaji, utekelezaji wa sheria na kuongeza ufanisi. Kwa upande wetu Tanzania Bara, serikali ilianza mchakato wa maboresho kwa kupitisha na kuchapisha sera ya Taifa ya mazingira mwaka 1997.Sera hii ilifuatiwa na kutungwa kwa sheria mpya ya mazingira Tanzania mwaka 2004 ambayo imeanza kutumika tangu mwaka 2005.
Sheria ya Mazingira ya Tanzania-EMA
Sheria ya mazingira Tanzania ilitungwa kufuatia kutungwa kwa sera ya taifa ya mazingira mwaka 1997. Sera bila sheria haina nguvu kwani hakuna anayeadhibiwa mahakamani kwa sababu ya kukiuka sera bali kwa kukiuka sheria. Kwa hali hiyo, Sera ya Mazingira ya mwaka 1997 imebainisha wazi (aya ya 70) juu ya umuhimu wa kutungwa kwa sheria itakayosimamia maswala ya mazingira nchini. Vile vile sera hiyo imetaja mambo muhimu ambayo sheria hiyo itayapa kipaumbele nayo ni:-
(a) Upembuzi yakinifu wa athari za mazingira (EIA)
(b) Matumizi ya dhana na viashiria vya kiuchumi
(c) Kuandaa viwango na viashiria vya mazingira (Standards & indicators)
(d) Kutumia kanuni ya kuchukua tahadhari kabla ya athari (Precautionary Principle)
(e) Kuimarisha ushirikiano wa kimataifa
Hivyo uandaaji wa sera na hatimaye rasimu ya sheria ya mazingira ulishirikisha wadau mbalimbali hadi Sheria ya uhifadhi na usimamizi wa mazingira Namba 20 ya mwaka 2004 ilipopitishwa na Bunge na kuridhiwa na Mheshimiwa Rais. Imlianza kutumika rasmi tarehe 1 Julai 2005 na kama ilivyotanguliwa kesemwa, Sheria hii imelenga kutekeleza yale yaliyobainishwa ndani ya sera ya mazingira. Kwa vile sheria hii ndiyo sheria mama juu ya uhifadhi wa mazingira nchini na rasilimali zake na inalenga uhifadhi wa mazingira kwa ujumla wake, imeweka misingi thabiti na kanuni za usimamizi endelevu wa mazingira nchini. Vile vile ina ainisha muundo wa kitaasisi wa utunzaji endelevu wa mazingira nchini na kuunganisha mamlaka za taasisi ilikuepuka migongano ikiwa ni pamoja na kuleta ushirikiano wa kiutendaji kati ya wahusika wa idara na wizara mbalimbali.
Kanuni za Misingi zilizopo katika sheria ya uhifadhi wa Mazingira ya Mwaka 2004.
Kama nilivyokwishadokezea katika makala yangu ya miezi iliyopita, si vibaya nikarudia tena baadhi ya kanunu zilizopo katika sheria hii ya Mazingira.
Miongoni mwa kanuni hizo ni ;kanuni ya mchafuzi kulipa. Sheria hii ya uhifadhi wa Mazingira inatamka wazi kuwa yeyote yule atakayebainika kuchafua mazingira analazimika kulipa kwa kiwango kile cha uchafuzi aliyeufanya. Lengo la hii kanuni ni kuhakikisha kuwa mlipaji wa uchafuzi wa mazingira kwanza aogope kuchafua tena mazingira na pili uchafuzi uliofanywa unasawazishwa na ulipaji huo.
Kanuni ya pili ni ile ya mtuhumiwa wa uchafuaji wa mazingira kudhibitisha mahakanani kuwa hachafui mazingira. Hii ni kanuni ambayo iko tofauti na sheria nyingine zote ambazo humtaka yule anayemtuhumu mwenzake kuwa amefanya jambo fulani kunyume na sheria fulani kudhibitisha mahakama kuwa kweli mtuhumiwa amefanya vile. Sheria hii ya uhifadhi wa mazingira inatamka wazi kuwa mtuhumiwa wa uchafuzi wa mazingira anatakiwa adhibitishe kuwa hachafui mazingira kama inavyodaiwa na mshitaki.
Kanuni ya tatu ni ile ya ushirikishwaji wa wananchi katika kutathimini athari za kimazingira katika mradi wowote ule unaotarajiwa kuanzishwa katika eneo fulani. Sheria hii ya uhifadhi wa mazingira inataka ushiriki wa wananchi wa eneo tarajiwa la mradi kuhusishwa moja kwa moja katika hatua zote za kutathimini athari za kimazingira zitakazoletwa na uanzishwaji wa mradi unao tarajiwa kuanzishwa.
Kitu cha msingi cha kukumbuka hapa ni kuwa mradi ni kuwa mradi wowote ule unakatazwa na sheria hii kuanzishwa kabla ya kufanyawaji wa tathimini ya kina ya athari za kimazingira zitakazotokana na uanzishwaji wa mradi katika eneo fulani Ni ukiukwaji wa sheria hii, tena wa makusudi na uliodhahiri kuanzishwa mradi wowote ule nchini Tanzania bila ya ufanywaji wa tathimini ya athari za kimazingira wa kina na wenye ushirikishwaji wa wananchi wa eneo la mradi tarajiwa.
Kanuni ya uchukuaji wa tahadhari. Sheria ya uhifadhi wa mazingira imejikita zaidi katika kuhakikisha kuwa uchafuzi wa mazingira hakutokei kabisa na siyo vinginevyo. Msingi mkubwa wa kanuni hii ni kuzuia kuharibika kwa mazingira kwa kufuata msemo wa Kiswahili wa “kinga ni bora kuliko tiba”. Hivyo basi sheria hii inachukua tahadhari na kuhakikisha kuwa uchafuzi hautokei kwa kuwa ukishakutokea ni vigumu au hawezekani kabisa kurudisha mazingira katika hali yake ya awali kabla ya uchafuzi huo kufanyika.
Kanuni ya kuwa juu ya sheria nyingine. Sheria ya Uhifadhi wa Mazingira ya mwaka 2004, inasema wazi wazi kuwa pindi itakapotokea kuwa sheria yeyote ile inapingana na kipengele chochote cha sheria hii, basi kipengele au vipengele vya sheria ya Uhifadhi wa Mazingira 2004, kitatumika. Katika msingi huu ni wazi kuwa sheria ya mazingira itakuwa juu ya sheria zingine pindi utata utakapojitokeza. Sheria hii inaweka wazi kuwa katika mgongano au utata wowote utakaojitokeza kimaantiki au kitaadhira, basi sheria ya Shifadhi wa Mazingira itume katika kutoa utata huo. Kimsingi sheria ya uhifadhi wa mazingira ndiyo msingi wa kutatua utata / mgongano huo.
Haki ya kupata habari za kimazingira
Kama tulivyokwisha eleza hapo juu ili mtu aweze kutimiza wajibu wake wa kutunza mazingira, kushiriki kikamilifu katika michakato na maamuzi yanayohusu mazingira ni lazima awe na uhakika wa kupata habari za mazingira ya sehemu na nchi yake, miradi inayofikiriwa kuanzishwa katika sehemu yake na mambo mbalimbali. Haki hii ni haki iliyotiliwa mkazo na Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania inasema kuwa kila mtu ana haki ya kupata, kutafuta na kupewa habari. Haki hii haina kipingamizi au utofautisho wowote.
Hivyo haishangazi kuona kwamba Sheria ya Mazingira, ya Mwaka 2004 inatambua na kutoa haki kwa kila raia anayo haki ya kupewa habari na taarifa zilizoko katika mamlaka za umma zinazohusiana na mazingira, hali ya mazingira, hatari zilizopo na zinazoweza kujitokeza katika mazingira ikiwa ni pamoja na utoaji wa vichafuzi katika maji, hewa au ardhi, utupaji na umwagaji na utunzaji wa takamadhara.
Sheria inadai kuwa haki hii inaweza kutotekelezwa kama: (a) habari au nyaraka zinazoombwa zitakuwa ni zile ambazo bado hazijamalizwa kuandikwa, takwimu au taarifa za ndani ya ofisi, au kama maombi hayo si ya busara au yameandikwa kwa ujumla au kijuujuu tu; (b) kama utengamano wa umma au usalama wa taifa utahatarishwa kwa kutolewa habari hizo; (c) kwa ajili ya kulinda siri za kibiashara, viwanda na kitaalamu; (d) kama maombi ni ya kijuuju, hayaeleweki au ni vigumu kufahamu aina gani ya taarifa inatakiwa; na (e) kama taasisi inayoombwa habari au taarifa hizo haina habari ya kuwepo kwake.
Kama maombi yanakataliwa ni jukumu la taasisi ya umma inayoyakataa kutoa sababu za maandishi za kukataa maombi hayo.
Inabidi tueleze wazi kuwa ni kosa kwa sheria hii kutaka kuviza haki ya wananchi kupata habari eti kwa ajili ya kulinda siri za kiviwanda au kibiashara. Kama habari zinahusiana na mazingira haziwezi kuwa za siri hivyo kwa sharti hilo sheria hii inakiuka kwa uwazi mkubwa Ibara ya 18 ya Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Wakati ni kweli kwamba habari ambazo haziwezi ni zile ambazo zinahatarisha usalama wa taifa, kizuizi hiki hakiwezi kutoa kinga kwa miradi yoyote ile ya kijeshi ambayo inachafua mazingira. Nchi mbalimbali zimetoa uhuru wa wananchi kupata habari za uchafuzi wa mazingira unaofanywa na vyombo vyao vya ulinzi na usalama. Habari ambazo ni siri na haziwezi kutolewa ni zile zinazohusiana na zana za kijeshi, maeneo zinapotunzwa zana hizo au uwezo wa kijeshi wa majeshi ya nchi hiyo. Lakini pale kunapokuwa na uchafuzi wa mazingira katika vyombo hivyo habari hizo lazima ziweze kupatikana.
Mkurugenzi wa Mazingira na Mkurugenzi Mkuu wa NEMC wao wana haki ya kupata habari zote zinazohusiana na hali ya mazingira ya nchi, vitu vinavyoharibu na kutishia kuharibu mazingira ikiwa ni pamoja na utoaji na umwagaji wa vichafuzi katika maji, hewa, na ardhi na utupaji na uhifadhi wa takamadhara. Hii ni kuweza kuwawezesha kutenda kazi zao vizuri. Ni kosa la kisheria kukataa kumpatia Mkurugenzi wa Mazingira na Mkurugenzi Mkuu wa NEMC habari na taarifa za mazingira ambazo wanazihitaji au wanatakiwa kupewa.
Ili kuwezesha kuwepo kwa taarifa za mazingira NEMC inatakiwa kukusanya taarifa zinazohusiana na mazingira pamoja na takwimu; kuwa na haki ya kuzipata na kupewa takwimu zozote za mazingira na maliasili; kuchambua taarifa zozote zinazohusiana na mazingira na maliasili; kusambaza habari kwa umma na taasisi binafsi; kufanya tafiti kuhusiana na idadi ya wtu na mienendo inayoathiri au gusa mambo ya mazingira na maendeleo; kufanya kampeni za kutoa taarifa na kuelimisha umma juu ya mambo ya mazingira; kubadilishana habari za mazingira na mashirika ya kiraia au taasisi za kikanda na kimataifa; kuratibu usimamizi wa taarifa za mazingira katika wizara za sekta ya mazingira; kumshauri Waziri juu ya mapengo na mahitaji ya taarifa; na mwisho kuanzisha, kwa kushauriana na wizara za sekta ya mazingira, miongozo na taratibu za kukusanya, kuchambua na kusambaza habari na taarifa za mazingira.
Sheria inaitaka NEMC kuanzisha na kuendesha Kitengo cha Habari za Mazingira ambacho kitakusanya na kuweka pamoja ugunduzi na takwimu ambazo zimetolewa na taasisi za umma na binafsi katika harakati zao za kuangalia na kusimamia mazingira. Kwa upande wake Mkrugenzi wa Mazingira anatakiwa kuchapisha ripoti ya hali ya mazingira na usimamizi wa mazingira nchini ambayo inatakiwa kuwasilishwa bungeni. Ni jukumu la wabunge wetu kumdai Mkurugenzi wa Mazingira kuchapisha na kuiwasilisha ripoti hii kwao. Nasi wananchi tunayo haki ya kumdai Mkurugenzi wa Mazingira juu ya uchapishaji wa ripoti hii. Ripoti hii inatakiwa iwe imekamilika na kueleza kwa kinagaubaga hali ya mazingira ya nchi yetu na utendaji wa idara na wizara mbalimbali zinazohusika na sekta ya mazingira. Ripoti hii lazima ieleze mikakati iliyopo ya kuyalinda na kuyaboreshs mazingira.
Sambamba na jukumu lake la kuchapisha ripoti ya hali ya mazingira Mkurugenzi wa Mazingira anaweza kuchapisha habari yoyote ile anayoiona kuwa ni ya lazima kwa ajili ya elimu ya umma juu ya mazingira na mambo ya mazingira. Hii ni pamoja na kuanzisha mipango na programu zinazolenga kukuza uelewa wa wananchi juu ya maendeleo endelevu na usimamizi wa mazingira. Vilevile Mkurugenzi anatakiwa, kwa kushauriana na wizara za sekta ya mazingira na elimu, kuchukua hatua za kuiingiza masuala ya mazingira katika mitaala ya elimu ya shule, vyuo na taasisi za elimu ya juu.
Baraza la Taifa la Usimamizi na Hifadhi ya Mazingira nalo lina wajibu wa kufanya upimaji na tafiti kuhusiana na hali ya mazingira na kutoa matarajio au maono yake juu ya mabadiliko ya mazingira kwa upande mmoja na kufanya tafiti ambazo zitachangia katika kuandaa sera na mipangokazi na mikakati inayohusiana na uhifadhi na usimamizi wa mazingira.
Waziri kwa upande wake anaweza kuiteua taasisi yoyote ile kuwa taasisi ya ushauri ya mambo yanayohusiana na ukuzaji wa tafiti-lengwa za kisayansi, utengenezaji wa habari kaitka nyanja ya mazingira, kufuatilia na kupima tija ya vitendo vilivyotendwa.
Monday, August 3, 2009
Now, to realize that promise, we must first recognize the fundamental truth that you have given life to in Ghana: Development depends on good governance. (Applause.) That is the ingredient which has been missing in far too many places, for far too long. That's the change that can unlock Africa's potential. And that is a responsibility that can only be met by Africans” This is a historical speech as it tries to touch different angles on how every individual should understand his/her contribution in his/her country so as to bring economic changes and improvement of life standard. On his speech, he mentions the theme of “Good governance” as he says “Developments depends on good governance” do this theme operates accordingly in Tanzania? I don’t think, and if we are not sailing on the same boat meaning that the theme of good governance is still a problem in our country to different sectors. As we can see there is over utilization of natural resources with low earning to raise economic status of every individual. One non governmental organization called UNGO realized the severe deforestation occurs in Morogoro District while its people are in dam of poverty. As one interviewed from Mvuha Village said “There is no good government since there is narrow participation of villagers to discuss environmental issues like, though we have our local authorities”.
I agree with Obama’s Speech as he pointed out issue of good governance as a tool for development. I here put emphasis that we Tanzanians should consider the existence of good governance by having so we shall have development changes to a better stage.
NCAA acting chief conservator, Bernard Murunya, said the ecosystem can only support 25,000 people. Trace back the establishment of the NCAA as World Heritage Site the area is fragile to be occupied with large population of larger than the mentioned above as well as advancement in technology of carrying out human activities.
UNESCO is not happy with the cultivation undertakings within the NCA Likewise the threats are caused by peasant agriculture which the native complains of its little contribution towards their lives and request for alternatives which most of them is supported by advancements in technology. This is contradictory because while UNESCO is not happy for their activities the request of the site does not require advancement in technology. The problem is increase in Demand to sustain the native’s population which requires advancement in technology (This is demographic factor)
The perspective of rescue NCAA Future importance must include the number of factors such as Population control especially in term of reproduction, control of Tourists Activities and take into consideration of alternatives that are sustainable and serve Pastoral Maasai lives. Natives have declared for their threats to ecology but request Government to provide alternatives that will stop their deeds. This is the best opportunity that can be used to provide deep knowledge, Skills and attitude over the importance of the site and sustainable utilization supported by improved population growth.
Wednesday, July 29, 2009
Human population growth resulted into increase in demands for sustaining man which resulted into increase in human wildlife conflicts as resulted from human social services demand, food, medicine, norms & cultural and land for cultivation and residence.
Due to increase human wildlife conflicts law enforcement have become less practical and cost full and still wildlife populations are subjected to extinction e.g. the black rhino.
For instance long before the creation of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania, the people of the western Serengeti had established settlements and interacted with the environment in ways that created a landscape we now misconstrue as natural. Western Serengeti peoples imagine the environment not as a pristine wilderness, but as a differentiated social landscape that embodies their history and identity. Conservationist literature has ignored these now-displaced peoples and relegated them to the margins of modern society. Their oral traditions, however, provide the means for seeing the landscape from a new perspective. Moreover, this thought strengthens the case for involving local communities in conservation efforts that will preserve African environments for the future.
It is true that law enforcement have failed in resolving different human – wildlife conflicts including poaching. The use of participation of the local communities in conservation is suggested as a supplement to the short comings of ant – poaching operations. Stakeholder participation was proposed to mitigate threats facing conservation of natural resources but is also believed to have proved failure
To Date, Different community conservation projects were established in different adjacent protected areas including Tarangire National Park and others at the Arusha Anti – poaching Unit areas of operations. However, poaching is believed to have increased compared to before the establishment of Community Conservation projects. A lot of funds are directed to ant – poaching operations and community conservation but still poaching is increasing tremendously. Little is written about the ant – poaching operations and community conservation in relation to their effects in reducing poaching activities and the efforts so far made to reduce these activities comparing to the success achieved.
Wildlife Management Areas (W.M.As) are there to share knowledge with local communities over the importance of a certain resources like wildlife but the way is taken carries a certain elements of Top Down approach. For instance the eviction of local communities at Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Authority, It is true that the area is facing ecological threats caused by human being, but people causing such threats are immigrants who have little knowledge about the area. Eviction will cause hardship to their life and force them to engage in poaching which seem to increase day after day. The only solution is to sit down wherever they are evicted or not share what they have in order to only create the HEART of OWNERSHIP in a new area and WILLINGNESS.
Not only Ngorongoro but most of W.M.As established in Tanzania have proved failure due to ineffective participation of local communities living adjacent to the areas. The way is established makes people feel as new thing which want to make their life harder. This creates a sense of conflicts among them with Wildlife authorities. Effective participation of local means involve them from planning up to implementation will harness the fruits of our W.M.As for the protection of our Wildlife
It sounds simple, but it implies a dramatic shift in the way we generate electricity, fuel our cars and build our homes and skyscrapers. It means diverting investments in new power stations from fossil fuels to wind, solar and other renewable which is a politically tricky task in the United States.
It also means wealthy countries need to raise tens of billions of dollars a year to help poor countries develop in cleaner ways than the industrial world did over the last 150 years. "It is in the tropics where the bulk of humanity lives - many of them in poverty - that climate change is hitting now and hitting hardest," suffering the Science, Climate Change, and Poverty.
Many of us take for granted that as long as we have money we can still buy food. However, the reality is much more complicated. If we were to look at the time and energy involved in producing our bowl of breakfast cereal, or worse still a chicken soup, then we’d be shocked not only by the complexity of the global food production system, but also the fragility of it.
Growing and selling food depends on a huge number of people, inputs and processes, from producers and buyers, through to infrastructure for transport, distributors and retailers. However, if you were to select the most important factors that the rest of the system depends on, they would be good land and a favourable climate. The latter is now under threat.
With an increasing world population, and rising demand for meat and dairy products (which are much more wasteful in land and other input requirements) producing enough food is already a challenge.
And to top it off we also have to deal with a rapidly changing climate. There are currently 1 billion hungry people in the world and the number is rising. The plight of these, and the millions of others who are already being hit hard by climate change, is highlighted in a new report published by Oxfam today.
But the truth is that the single most important investment society must make - right now - is to ensure a firm stance on curbing emissions. Whether it takes a million, a billion dollars, or more.
Therefore it is still a big question that will the G8 shift their pollutant industrial policies or else?
With development, people think of economic development only without looking back the cost and externalities that natural resources and environment encounters, such that at the end of the day we attain economic development living in the world of depleted natural resources and environment that threatens life on the globe. So, what is the use of this development if it ruins humankind?
With poverty, man is proving to be man’s own enemy by destroying nature and polluting the surrounding where he lives. The whole of this is done in the course of looking for livelihood sources. People cut down trees for polls, firewood, charcoal making for sale, and expansion of farms e.t.c. With poverty, people think of no alternative to meet their household requirements except from natural resources.
With environmental education, our people should be trained on how to interact sustainably with their environment, moreover there is a need to train our people on alternative ways of getting household earnings. The local communities should be guided to form small groups where different economic strategies can be easily imparted to free these people from natural resource dependency.
In groups people can be trained on how to use modern beehives that yield enough honey for business, also people should be imparted with new skills of collecting honey instead of using fires that kill the bees and worse still turns large forests to deserts.
For the livestock keepers, they can be trained and enforced to reduce their large herds of cattle and start to keep cattle depending on the carrying capacity of the area. With better handling of our livestock, we can increase both quality and quantity of beef and milk yields. This will make us increase our incomes and become less dependent to natural resources.
In groups, people can be trained to form Village Community Banks/Community Conservation Banks i. e VICOBA/COCOBA respectively. With such group savings group members are eligible to access small loans with simpler conditionals for every community to meet that will enable them to initiate small income generation activities.
With all these, it is the role of the GOs and NGOs to provide adequate knowledge to the Village environmental committees on laws and policies that govern natural resources and environment. Such communities when empowered can amicably conserve the environment.
Last but not least all together should restore back the sense of ownership of natural resource to the local communities that, they should feel that the NR in their vicinities belongs to them, thus everyone has to be a faithful custodian of it.
I know that it is difficult to attain the standards we desire, we will not succeed in one day or in one year, but what I can assure you today is that together we can make this happen.
So ladies and gentlemen, let’s opt for these bitter choices for the betterment for promising undiminished future of mankind.
Apart from leaving the inhabitants with nothing, the mining companies have become deleterious to threaten human life in Tanzania. Recently there has been devastating reported deaths and skin injuries of our fellow compatriots with their cattle and flocks leaving near North Mara Gold mines owned by Barric Tanzania. This was a result of poisonous water from the mining plant being channeled to river Tigithe. It was fortunate to me that when I heard of this havoc my friend who works in that mining plant was beside me, he was on his 28days holiday after 56working days in the plant. Therefore, It was a high time for me to know in detail on how the mining regime operates and mineral processing it performed in general, under friendship bases I was sure that he could tell me to the bottom the truth. He said that, plant workers are not allowed to get into the mines with their cell phones especially those with cameras, thus he is always offline during his 56 workdays in the mines. He went on saying that, the poison that killed people was cynide, then I surprisingly asked him, why such a poisonous and deadly element to human vicinity?I remembered ten years ago the “story of cyanide element” my chemistry teacher told us in class, that until then none knew the test of cyanide. It’s discoverer died of the poison when testing just before writing how it tests.
The friend said that, despite its deadly poisonous effect, cyanide is the best and world-class reagent used in purification of alluvial gold. It extracts about 80% of pure Gold from its alluvial ores. Then, I was eager to know about the dumping and handling of the remains after purification because I know that the residues still contain cyanide. He said that, the residues are dumped in special tile tanks excavated within the plant surrounding. He said confidently that, cyanide leakages from these tanks could be the source of poison within river Tigithe.Being familiar to the area he resumed that, the river is the source of domestic water for nearby killed and injured inhabitants with their cattle and flocks.
I am not very sure whether everyone is aware that such cattle and flocks are a source of beef to the people living in towns and cities’ including Dar-es-Salaam.Apart from that water from this river is an integral of drainage system of that area. It is connected to other rivers and Lake Victoria by either underground or upper ground flow water systems, this makes me think of the aquatic biota and its wide spread human uses.
It was unfortunate that before concluding our conversation a friend had to leave to respond an emergency call that compelled him to be somewhere he did not tell me.At this time I had many questions in my mind with none to respond to them; what does the government say? Where will this poisonous residual be taken after closure of the plant? How safe is the beef and fish we eat from such areas, is the problem local or countrywide? Of what value are these blood minerals if it makes us suffer and die?
Monday, July 27, 2009
Before the day the minister concern the environment from the vice president office Hon. Dr. Batilda S Burian invites the journalist for the press conference where she tells the stand of the government and what will be done on the day.
During the press Hon. Dr Burian starts by giving the original of the environmental day where it begun on 1972 in the inauguration meeting of the environment which was held in Stockholm, Sweden.
Tanzania has decided to go with the message to Tabora for the reason that it is among the destructed area since the indicator of the deforestation.
According to Hon. Dr Burian who presents the government that in fighting the climate change the government has given education to the citizen so as to increase the understanding on environmental conservation in implementing the program.
The vice president office is said to prepare the national program on public education with this the office is participating on environmental celebrations international and national wise.
The government through the vice president office is cooperating with the non governmental organization and the civil society organization to encourage the use of charcoal as an alternative source of energy.
Mbeya is mentioned to be among the successful area since the mineral is found for the areas like Prisons, hospitals and schools are the areas using charcoal in cooking.
Again Hon. Dr Burian says the vice president office is giving education on the climate change though various occasions, media features and different environmental occasions which occur in this world.
It is true the time the message given is right but still asked are they talking to please the people or events or they are meaning it.
Each year on first January is where people are planting trees to make mitigate the problem of climate change still we don’t see forest even those trees growing.
It can be very difficult but what we ask is that what is important and easy to make people know the politics and vote for people to eat or educate people and make the sustainable environment for our grand children.
The environmental management act of 2004 in preliminary no 2 invoke that people may formulate associations but still most of them need the power of the government since political leaders and governmental officials are the people involved in environmental degradation.