Monday, October 18, 2010

Life is Possible Without “Dead Aid” A Lesson from Ngarenaro Community.

Most development projects in Tanzania especially those which are community based are donor dependent. Even where the national policies and laws indicate the willingness of the government to support community based projects; nothing is implemented in the national budget by using government revenue. For example generally, all community based wildlife and forest management projects area funded by donor agencies like Africare, African Wildlife foundation (AWF), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Danish Hunters Association (DHA) and Frunkfut Zoological Society (FZS) among others. Others are supported by local NGOs like TFCG, WCST and MJUMITA, which depend entirely on donor funded projects. This provides evidence that if our policies and laws are not made by donors (former colonialists), the government formulate them, and sit down or sleep fo-fo-fo… and wait for Wazungus/Wakoloni to come to implement them. Such tendency has built a general nonsensical policy of dependency among most Tanzanians that ‘we can’t’.

Independency Vs Dependency; ‘Setlife’ Vs ‘Sisitiza Mazingira’ Groups. Lesson from YETs Field Visits.

Most Tanzania’s community development projects are entirely left on the brains of foreign donors (our former colonialists). This starts from researching and analyzing the problems, developing solutions and funds for implementing them. Almost all infrastructure development projects, health and other social development projects and natural resources and environmental conservation projects are dependent on foreign donors. Does it mean that Tanzanians (including elites from universities) cannot even identify their own problems?

“Consolation” should never be Treated as “Compensation”! (Lesson from wildlife conservation act 2009)

Communities living adjacent to wildlife protected areas of Tanzania have been the victims of crop raiding and destruction, livestock and human killing and habitat destruction by wildlife, since the introduction of wildlife protected areas regulations, during colonial rule, up to date. Under effective collaboration with NGOs, CSOs, and humanitarian organizations their major claim to the State has been compensation for the destructions, especially for the lost crops, livestock or relatives, sons and daughters. The government and its wildlife conservation agencies have been resisting by providing weak and shocking reason that, to give compensation is difficult. For example the government has been holding that, it is difficult to value and compensate for the lost human life! This is never a good reason to come with the slogan of “no compensation”. If we can’t estimate the value of human life, is it reasonable to give it zero value??

Biofuels: An Open Road to Starvation and Enslavement

For the past few years, agrofuels have rapidly emerged as a major issue in agriculture sector.
Development, energy policy, and natural resource management. Growing demand for agrofuels is being driven by recent high oil prices, energy security concerns, and global climate change and the need to shift into clean utilization of our natural resources. In Tanzania, there has been a growing interest from foreign private investors in establishing agrofuels projects since 2000, Since then, now we are having more than 40 foreign companies in the country investing in the agrofuels differing in implementation modalities. Few companies for instance Diligent in Arusha promote ‘outgrowers’ by letting the community use their land to cultivate jatropha and they buy seed from them. Others compete and acquire like Sun Biofuel in Kisarawe and Bioshape in Kilwa Masoko to mention few, acquire big land and implement the project themselves.

Biofuels are broadly defined as liquid, solid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly or exclusively produced from biomass. The main types of biofuels

Tuesday, September 7, 2010


In my last article, I revealed how I was intrigued and impressed by Setlife, an organisation that has distinguished itself to make a difference along the River Ngarenaro against all odds. In that article moved by the spirit of Africa by Africans, I went forward to point out how successful an anti-aid African initiative can be successfully transform our country and the Africa as a whole!

Today’s article is intended to further justify aid is killing Tanzania and most African countries and that we do much better on our own, even with the level of illiteracy that we still have, as according to me, education matters but the so called ‘formal education’ matters less.

As August was folding, again I went for a field visit to Babati District in Manyara region. Though I visited several places and organizations, two destinations caught my eye. These were Ayasanda community forest and Mzee Joachim Thambo’s private forest.

Thursday, September 2, 2010


It was on 2nd August, 2010 when Young Environmentalists trainees and trainers visited Babati District in Manyara region for learning purpose. The trip started at MS-TCDC in Arusha region were the trainees were trained. The trainees visited three sites; Farm Africa at Dareda, Ayasanda village, Hala village (Mzee Tambo place-Private ownership of the forest).
Among the three sites, I will focus on Private Ownership of forest in light of the law; Case study Mzee Tambo.
Mzee Tambo is an old Man living at Hala Village in Babati District. He owns a private forest. He is doing other activities such as tree nursery, coffee plantation, vegetables, and fruits farming. He is regarded as an example in environmental protection which I subscribe also.
My article establishes the legal requirement for one to own a private forest and also reference is made to Mzee Tambo private ownership of the forest. Does Mzee Tambo Have legal security for his private forest? What is his legal status for his ownership? The aim is to provoke mind of different stakeholders towards the ownership of the forest. The aim is not to address specifically mzee Tambo issue however isM


Wildlife as a Tanzanians Natural Heritage is managed for its values and for its sustainable utilization. This management linked to conservation and species protection Agenda aims at benefiting the Nation and its people as well as the Wildlife itself. Like other countries Tanzania has established Protected Area systems for Natural Resource conservation. These are National Parks, Game Reserves, Ngorongoro Conservation area Authority, Controlled Areas and other categories of land that can be considered protected areas which are the Corridors, Migratory routes and Dispersal areas.


It was 2nd august 2010 when the Young Environmentalist Trainees visited Babati for field study of environmental entrepreneurship done there.
During the field study YETs observed


AUGUSTI 27, 2010
Kuna kundi la wagombea ambao hadi hivi wanaamini kuwa wao ni wabunge halali wa Jamhuri
ya Muungano na hivyo wanasubiri siku ya kuapishwa ili wachukue nafasi zao Bungeni.
Wagombea hawa hadi hivi wanajiona ni wabunge wateule kwa sababu katika majimbo yao
hakukuwa na upinzani na hivyo wao “wamepita bila kupinga”. Jambo hili limerudiwa na
vyombo vingi vya habari na hadi hivi sasa karibu majimbo 20 yanao watu wanaojulikana kuwa
“wamepita bila kupingwa”.
Jambo hili ni kinyume na Katiba, linatishia demokrasia, linanyang’anya wananchi haki ya

Monday, August 30, 2010

Proposed Serengeti Highway, the Alternative Scenario?

Recently as we know, the government of Tanzania has approved a major commercial highway across Serengeti National Park in the direct path of the park's world-famous wildlife migration routes.
Despite pressure from global NGOs, Wildlife conservation bodies, development partners and donors it seems the government has remained stubborn and keep on defending the undefendable and is keen to go ahead with this controversial project.

Friday, August 27, 2010


It was on 2nd August 2010 when YET group had a field trip to Babati district. This was the practical lesson which followed after the theoretical one on the topic of environmental entrepreneurship at MS TCDC Arusha.
It was a great opportunity which provided the learners with knowledge and skills on investing on environmental resources including forests and land.
The trip included the three areas which were Farm Africa offices in Dareda, Berm village one among the villages which are working with Farm Africa and lastly Ayasanda village.


Environmental degradation has pulled the world’s attention now more than ever, geared by a desire to continue prospering industrially the developed world is now set to pay the developing world handsomely on any efforts they undertake in making sure that they reduce the rate of environmental degradation. The unfortunate truth is that, this money which comes in the form of grant or compensation is squandered and siphoned by scrupulous politicians and technocrats in the government and in the civil society sector alike.

In an effort to mitigate the effects of environmental degradation the local communities have for centuries been playing a great role with or without donor support, such efforts are nowadays down played and even criticized as not sustainable, not scientific etc. However, on an objective eye, no reasonable man would avoid the temptation of associating such despises with donor syndrome and a rat race chase for donor channel by CSOs and Government institutions.

Mid March this year, found me in Arusha-The Hague of Africa undertaking a Community mobilization course at MS Training Centre, as part of the training we went for a field trip which happened to be a visit at River Ngarenaro at Ngarenaro Ward. Had it not been for the bad name that the area had earned itself all over Tanzania in two to three years down the road, that it’s a slum, dirt, and dominated by low class inhabitants, I would not have been impressed by what transpired later as locals’ efforts to make a difference and preserve their environment.

At Ngarenaro River we were received by our hosts, a local organization led by few not articulate but right thinking youths-Setlife. As they took us along the beautiful banks of River Ngarenaro that was by now dominated by well cared for and lined up soft wood trees, we could not avoid being attracted by the beautiful aroma of pine and Cyprus which had now replaced the chocking filth smell of shit and leftovers that used to be piled along the river bank three to four years back. Going even further, were boys and girls aged as from 10 to 18 years planting more trees on a voluntary basis as we later came to learn. This gave us a chance to join the activity as we lent a hand by planting trees which we shall be proud of for years.

Specifically, Setlife attracted me on its innovative idea of not depending on donor support but rather use the opportunities available to make a difference in environmental preservation. Setlife so a gap of lack of proper garbage collection at Ngarenaro, which to them was not only a threat but also an opportunity, they decided that they will collect solid waste from all house holds at Ngarenaro for a token fee of Tsh. 300 thus not only securing employment for themselves but also giving locals an alternative of disposing of their garbage other than along River Ngarenaro at an affordable fee. This to me goes even further than employment and cost and covers; environmental protection along River Ngarenaro whose banks am told had been piling with heaps of garbage.

Having managed the collection of garbage from homesteads, Setlife invested at reclaiming River Ngarenaro from the garbage piles that had already been piled up before they started their operation. This was quite costy and tiresome considering the fact that they had to depend on the money they received from garbage collection. With the river banks clean, Setlife embarked on a tree planting campaign which is on going though the doors of success are wide open for Setlife.

It wasn’t easy at all, they say. They were met with several constraints including lack of locals’ cooperation at the beginning. Determined to make a difference they have set strategies to make sure that they have expert’s advice and political support from the government. This has been done by supporting a member to enroll at the University of Dares salaam and one member to contest for councillorship of the area.

These efforts are worthy emulating, Setlife is like a drop of water in the desert. It is a high time that youths will stop the proposal minded kind of NGO formulation and borrows the good work of Setlife. To me Setlife, so a gap and addressed it thus opening an opportunity for themselves and the community at large. Long Live Setlife! Long live River Ngarenaro!

By: Stephen Msechu.


Conservation of natural resources to the eyes of community is becoming more visible and already their resources are showing realized tangible benefits. With combined effort people in different community in Tanzania have been fighting towards conservation of their natural forest, wildlife and water catchment areas so as to nurture with the nature and ensuring sustainability of their natural resources.

This can be realized from the recent visit of group of Young Environmentalist Trainees( YETs) to the number of villages in Babati region which includes Dareda, Bermi,Ayasanda and Hali.The effort and acceptance of the community in these villages towards adaptation to the Livelihood option such as Beekeeping,Tree nursery,Mushroom farming ,Butterfly farming and improved stove shows a promising future to our natural resources as well as the Language of Environmental conservation. Despite of the conservation projects from different NGOs busting the community in conservation issues but individual effort and commitment was realized to be the engine towards this success.
“I and my family for number of year we have succeeded to conserve Natural trees,protection of water sources and practicing sustainable Agriculture’ Mr Joackim Mtambo who is the senior Local conservator from Hale village said when trying to highlight some of the major activities which have driven him towards conservation success.

Beehive being kept by Bermi Villagers as one of the Livelihood options(i.e. Beekeeping).

Community themselves however, they realize that ,it is madness waiting until the Conservation NGOs and Agencies harmonizing them to protect their environment and Natural resources , for this reason each villagers is responsible for conserving and protecting their Natural Resources and Environment. Speaking at the meeting between YETs member and the villagers of Bermi village, the Chairman of Bermi village about 10Km in the Southern part from Babati town said ‘through direct involvement in different projects implementation activities from the NGOs called ‘Farm Africa’ they are gaining a lot of benefit from being engaged in different livelihood options ( i.e Beekeeping , Butterfly farming , Mushrooom farming and Tree nursery) as mentioned earlier . Further more reports from the leadership from all villagers revealed that, to overcome the problem of threats to their Natural resources (Wildlife and Forest) and Environment within their village , they have formed responsibles task force such as Village Environmental commitee and village scouts to make tightly followup on those threats, however in most cases every one within the village is responsible to protect the resource.

Despite the truth that , there is promising voice from the community towards succes in Natural resource and Environmental conservation ,increased involvement of the government, NGOs and other private sector is the cornerstone which will make the dreams of the community on conservation to grow higher.Responsible NGOs investing in different conservation projects must ensure efficiency Capacity building to the community via different training ,seminars and workshop on various conservation techniques and this will act as fuel to achieve more succes as well as meeting the Millenium Development Goals.

By Justine Gwegime

Tuesday, August 24, 2010


Tanzania Economy has been substantially liberalized over the past 20 years following the beginning of the World Bank Supported adjustment programme in 1986.In particular Tanzania has reformed its investment and tax laws to attract foreign direct investment and a range of incentives is now offered to all foreign investors[1]. Following the reforms a number of foreign companies took the opportunity and invest in the Mining sector.
The giant foreign mining companies dominating the sector include the Canadian company, Barrick Gold Corporation operates three mines in Bulyanhulu, North Mara and Tulawaka and is developing a forth at Buzwagi. And; the South Africa AngloGold Ashanti (AGA) which operates the Geita mine, known to be the country largest gold deposit. Gold and diamond production has been the mainstay of mining production for Tanzania however, following trade liberalization in the 1990s; the mining industry has been growing rapidly. In the late 1998, the mining of gold has been the fastest growing sector of the economy after Tourism.

Tanzania is currently the third largest gold producer in Africa after South Africa and Ghana. The mining industry is fairly small in terms of value, nevertheless very significant since the sector earns a considerably large share of the export revenues for the country. Currently, the mining sector contributes around 2.3% to annual GDP; however, the government desires to expand the same to 10% by 2025[2]. According to mining experts, the country is endowed with one billion ounces of gold unexploited as yet[3]. Only four percent of Tanzania`s gold potential is being exploited despite the country being Africa's third largest producer. It is important to note that as per 2002 gold price, Tanzania is a fortune owner of up to US$39bn which is over three times the country’s annual GDP of US$11bn even though extraction costs are considered in this figure[4].

The Mining Act of 1998 prior the new Act of 2010 was the principal legislative framework that regulates application and grant of mineral rights as well as payments of taxes and royalties. The government obtains revenue from exploitation of minerals through taxes and royalties. On one hand, corporate tax is a form of taxation levied on company’s profit calculated from gross sales minus operating costs, capital charges, interest and depreciation, depletion allowances and any other deductibles. Generally, it ranges from 15-45% of net profits. It is payable in cash to the relevant inland or tax authorities. On the other hand, royalty is a sum of money paid to the government by a holder of a concession; it is a revenue based tax. A royalty can be paid on gross amount of revenue generated from minerals without any deductions on costs; it is paid regardless of profit from the undertaken project. Royalties contribute substantially to the income of the government.

Mining Companies pay taxes and royalties as indicated in the Income Tax Act, 2004 R.E.2006 and The Mining Act, 2010 and other relevant laws. However there are complaints from the public that the mining companies are not paying taxes as required, hence the government loses revenue. Reference is made to the income of these companies per year and the amount they pay. There are evidence that what the companies declare as their income per year is not realistic as they tend to submit less and declare loss recovery.

Tax payments by mining companies have been an issue as there are contradictory figures. Establishing precisely as how much the government is earning from gold is difficult since contradictory figures have been given by various sources. For example Figures provided by the Tanzanians Chamber of Mines indicate that the government received the revenue averaging
$ 28.4 million a year amounting to 10 percent of the value of exports. UN’s trade organization, UNCTAD, they all show that the government revenues from the mining are exceedingly low, ranging from $ 13m a year to a high US$ 36m a year. As a percentage of exports government revenue is actually less than 10 percent a year in all these estimates[5].There is a need to conduct a research to compromise the figures or to come out with the realistic figures by making reference to income of the company per year and taxes paid by looking the records and other sources.

“We hear that every day that there is no money for the development projects for building schools and dispensaries. Yet people hear of billions of shillings lost in tax revenue………How do we explain this to people who we tell there is no money for basic services”, John Cheyo, Chairman, Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee”[6]

Whom to believe when reference is made to the existing discrepancies. With existing figures, there are a lot of doughty; the implication is that the country is not benefiting from the mining sector especially with regards to revenue/taxes paid by the mining companies
Action is required to ascertain the issue of taxes paid by the mining companies. This will help to know whether the government is losing or benefiting from the mining sector. When reference is made to the existing figures the government loses a lot with regards to revenues from the mining industry.

By Baraka Saiteu Kiboya.

Sunday, August 22, 2010


It was a nice day when we had a visit to Babati to learn on project environmental entrepreneurship and other successful projects conducted in the district. We hard a shared experience with villagers and the way Farm Africa has mobilized them for a change.
It was a place of a practical leaning since we visited many places to see how the community have responded to protect their own environment.
I lent among other things, livelihood options available like Bee keeping, butterfly farming and forest conservation projects.
I was interested with the Beekeeping technology since in the host organization there is an expected project of the same manner. In each case it will be a good experience when the project resumes.
When we visited Dareda, Eyasanda and Mzee Thambo’s farm I learnt on good relationship between the district government of Babati and the civil society organizations around together with other people in the community.
They supported ideas of private persons like Mzee Thambo and working hand in hand with Farm Africa for development of their people. In this Mzee Thambo’s farm I was convinced very much of the activities conducted by the old man for his development and people around.
The power of idea was successful in practice. The idea had opportunity to employ him and make his life meaningful.
Once more in Eyasanda forest conservation was successful and RED initiatives had taken place. They were paid for protecting the forest and used the funds to build schools and pay for children who could not manage fee. It was also a good experience for regulations and the way every body had direct benefit with the forest.
We found challenges. In Eyasanda hope was lost on the part of the government on the payment which was done since the intervention of the government in the system have made a process very complicated for them to get paid.
They could not know how much to get paid since they can not calculate the conservation return.
Market was also a challenge to Mzee`Tambo and other people around. It is difficult for their products to get sold in good price. YET had advised them to find market options and not to depend entirely on internal market which might rise little for their lives.
All in all, the trip was good and practical we lent many things, environmental conservation technique and related lively hood options available. Mobilization and strategies for environmental adult education in the village level.

Peace and unity in the Isles should not come at the expense of the Union

According to referendum results released on Sunday 1st August 2010, Zanzibar, has opted to enshrine power sharing in the constitution to end decades of crippling political feuds. “Two thirds of the semi autonomous Tanzanian territory's voters approved the idea of a coalition government being formed after the upcoming October 31 polls, the Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC) announced”.

The "yes" vote, supported by both the ruling CCM and the opposition CUF parties, mustered 66.4 percent while the "no" vote took 33.4 percent in the referendum held on Saturday.
"With these results, there is no loser and there is no winner. Let us believe that we have all won," ZEC chairperson Khatib Mwinyichande said.

The referendum bring an amendment to the constitution of Zanzibar, the Constitution redefined its territory as a sovereign state within the United Republic of Tanzania, have reignited the controversy over the future of the Union.
According to the amendments, Article 1 and 2 of the Zanzibar Constitution, which previously identified Zanzibar as part of the United Republic of Tanzania, have been deleted. The changes redefine Zanzibar is a state formerly known as the 'People's Republic of Zanzibar' with its territory composed of Unguja, Pemba and all the small surrounding islands, as it was before the 1964 merger with Tanganyika.
The new clause stipulates that Zanzibar is among the two countries that form the United Republic of Tanzania.

The Constitution of the United Republic proclaiming Tanzania to be a country resulting from the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, as the one and only sovereign state, I am of the opinion that the recognition of Zanzibar as a state would "steal Tanzania's statehood". And I see that the amendment of the constitution indicates the break-up of the United Republic of Tanzania.
This article of the Constitution cannot be altered by Zanzibar House of Representatives alone. They have totally no mandate or authority on this issue. The House of Representatives had disregarded the laid-down procedure by altering constitutional provisions touching on the Articles of the Union.

Article 98 (b) of the Union Constitution states
Any Bill for an Act to alter any provisions of the Constitution or any provision of any law relating to any of the matters specified in List Two of the second schedule to the Constitution shall be passed only if it is supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all Members of Parliament from Tanzania Mainland and not less than two-thirds of all MPs from Tanzania Zanzibar.

Declaring Zanzibar as one of the two countries that form the United Republic of Tanzania was to change the structure of the Union to form a co federal authority between the people of Zanzibar and Tanganyika. This means that Tanganyika retains its sovereignty and statehood and so does Zanzibar. So you form a confederation. The statehood automatically moves out of that the United Republic of Tanzania and goes to Zanzibar and Tanganyika.
If the amendments are implemented there is not going to be a united republic of Tanzania. The nation has broken up.
Though I strongly support the reconciliation process that had culminated in the constitutional changes, the declaration that Zanzibar is a state has gone beyond the aim of bringing Zanzibaris together. Though it was crucial to bring about peace and unity in the Isles, this should not come at the expense of the Union; Zanzibar is a part of the United Republic of Tanzania.
Written by Magreth Makinge YET 2010


Few villagers today conduct indiscriminate hunting of wildlife in national parks in their neighborhood after the government started vigorous programmes to involve them in wildlife conservation exercise.
The exercise may have begun decades ago, but the last five years have seen more efforts by the government to reap the wealth potential that has been in the wild from time immemorial.
Tourism as one of the sources of revenues from the wildlife and other natural resources has a result attracted much attention of the state to give the people education about the potential wealth buried in their surrounding areas.
Awareness of how to exploit their environment with only some care and a little love has drowned much effort and enthusiasm from them resulting in big rewards.
Among the chief beneficiaries are women who as a means of emancipation have taken to beekeeping mostly in the districts of Babati, Handeni, Uyui and Manyoni.
Such efforts are commendable development in keeping with the government’s policy to empower women to avert their suppression and oppression.
Such economic goals prompted in the past five years the conception of awareness programmes to empower the people and attract them into considerable participation in wildlife conservation.
The period beginning from 2006 to date saw a noticeable growth of such programmes. Reforestation projects were initiated and matching plans to make people sustain the exercise of tree planting were drawn.
The effort has paid in profitable tourism that has benefitted the local communities in various parts of the country. Deliberate efforts to prove to the local communities the benefits of wildlife and forests conservation have been necessary.
Investment to exploit other potentials of the wild like lions in the country has also taken a good pace. Education to the people to empower them in that area has been a significant factor the government has provided to the people.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Environmental Injustice in relation to nature tourism

While many people perceive the term eco-tourism to mean a more friendly, most are not aware of the negative impacts that result from this type of tourism.

"Nature tourism" is based on the use of natural resources in an undeveloped state.

With this separation of people and nature, reserves areas in Tanzania were created without any consideration for the local communities.

Tourism industry has grown to be a $439 billion a year business. Tourism is one of the top five export categories in Tanzania. It is no surprise, then, Tanzania government wants to take advantage of this incredible economic opportunity. In competition with many other beautiful places, Tanzania has to make their lands look the most attractive to the tourism community, and, unfortunately, the price is paid by the local people.

Today, more parks and reserves are being created by the government without the participation or consent from the indigenous people. The indigenous people consider development, whether it is through tourism or other government projects, to only benefit others and not their own situations. Over the course of their existence, Maasai land has been taken away from them repeatedly, and after many broken promises of compensation and participation, the Maasai have started to fight for their land rights.

Maasai societies were sharing their land with the wild animals long before the arrival of those who use game only as a means of making money. They should not be pushed off from their own land for the financial convenience of commercial hunters and hotel-keepers.

The Maasai were highly influenced by the concept of privatization and its benefits and by the World Bank, which encouraged privatization. Privatization, however, was not an ideal substitution for the traditional migration that was so compatible with the land. While the Maasai did compete with the wildlife, it was not so significant for it to be damaging. Privatization concentrated their livelihood to a restricted piece of land, thus contributing to "unsustainable ecology”.

Two events have played into the environmental injustices that have occurred among the Maasai people. First, the Maasai lost considerable rangeland to the rich, white British colonists in the early part of their history, and it is unknown whether or not the land they were left with can sustain the remaining population. Second, to keep their parks desirable to tourists by preserving the wildlife, the governments restricted the Maasai to small parcels of land, which is not compatible with a pastoral way of life. It is ironic that while the government is blaming Maasai overgrazing on park degradation, they are encouraging unsustainable practices by restricting them from migrating.

This pastoral tribe relies on the land for raising their cattle. They have interacted with the land, sustainably, for thousands of years by migrating in order to allow the grass to regenerate. Ever since the British colonization, however, this interaction has been disrupted in order to protect the wildlife from unnecessary competition from the Maasai. This concern for the wildlife stems not from a moral ethic, but from the economic opportunities it creates.

The Maasai’s only demand is rights to the land that they have inhabited for years. Not only have they been denied this right, but they have not been compensated adequately for the land they have given up.

There are many things the government can do to break down the preconceptions they have about indigenous people and to recognize how tourism can negatively affect these people when considering future projects. The government should recognize that tourism is not only affects people by taking their land away, but that, it has many social and psychological impacts also.

There are many avenues for correction that should be explored by governments, the tourism industry and environmental organizations. Above all, they must realize that while they are preserving the wildlife in these areas, they are eliminating some of the most endangered groups in the world.

The governments should secure prior informed consent from the indigenous communities that exist in these areas before beginning a development project, and then give them more control over the implementation of the project. Their decisions should base on knowledge about both the pros and cons of development. We are tired of hearing about the ‘enterprise concept’ which usually promotes only the benefits of ‘development’ and we need to know the potential downside too.

Local control would give back to the community and would lessen the impacts of development because the indigenous communities would have more interest in preserving something they are actually benefiting from. However, with all the tour companies that exist today, local communities do not have the political or economic force to compete with these other corporations and their government.

The scale of the tourism project should be considered. The number of tourists should not overwhelm the local population.

The economic disparity between the host and the guest should be examined. This disparity could lead to increased hostility among the hosts and guests.

The cultural differences between the host and guest should be explored. Guests should respect the traditions and wishes of the hosts. Finally, guests should not come with any cultural expectations.

The government should realize that the local communities have a right to say no to tourism activities in the area. Finally, to compensate for such imposition, the government should support indigenous community programs.


Effects of climate change act as a threat mainly to the population that still depends on subsistence agriculture for their daily livelihood. The past trend on droughts, floods and recent poor harvest in 2005 which caused hunger in most parts of the country and disappearance of the ice cap at Mt. Kilimanjaro is now more than ever imminent evidence of climate change due to evident temperature increases caused by global warming.

Glacier retreat and change of vegetation on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro have made the latter one of the climate change hotspots in Tanzania. In the past dense forests around the mountain used to cause water flows in a number of rivers that originate from the mountain eventually forming the large Pangani River Basin comprising Nyumba ya Mungu, Hale and Pangani Hydropower Stations.

The livelihood of surrounding communities depend on the ecosystem over the mountain, reliable water, forests products, rain-fed and irrigatable agriculture as well as livestock manifested the paradise of Mt. Kilimajaro ecosystem.

Recently, water shortage, failing agriculture, depletion of forest stocks and unreliability of rainfall has been experience and in view of persistence of this negative feature it has been attributed to climate change.

The negative effects of climate change have been worsen by increasing population pressure and poverty, agricultural land has been inadequate and communities have encroached the formally catchment forest area and river valleys for agricultural purposes. Other courses being the current land tenure system, where family heads distribute the available land as an asset to sons, and allocation of the catchment areas and river valleys as farming land. This increase pressure from human settlement and resource use caused the need for intervention becomes inevitable.

In order to address this issue there are must be promotion of reforestation programmes to adopt climate change impacts. This will involve restoration of vegetation cover on the degraded areas and making available forest products to communities living in the area.

In order to improve the livelihood of communities around Mt Kilimanjaro there are must be establishment of projects that will provide alternative sources of income and food through replanting of trees and economic diversification

There are must be efforts that will increase awareness on climate change adaptation, biodiversity conservation and aforestation through community participatory efforts which will strengthen community participatory through CBO’s, schools, churches, youth groups, women groups in conservation activities.

Written by Magreth U. Makinge

Impacts of climate change in Tanzania

The adverse impacts of climate change are already having their toll in the livelihoods of people and in the sectors of the economy in the country. Frequent and severe droughts in many parts of the country are being felt with their associated consequences on food production and water scarcity among others. The recent severe droughts which hit most parts of the country leading to severe food shortages, food insecurity, water scarcity, hunger and acute shortage of power signify the vulnerability of the country to impacts of climate change.

Adequate food, good health, access to clean and safe drinking water, and sufficient energy for domestic and industrial use are critical factors for sustaining livelihoods and economic growth. The current drought led to critical food shortages leading to food insecurity and hunger. Thus major effort is required to achieve food security at national and household levels, and also to enable rural communities generate cash form farming activities.

It is high time to look at the country’s climate change related vulnerabilities in various sectors which are important for the economy. Since Tanzania’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture, it is deemed that sustainable development can be achieved when strategic actions both short term and long term are put in place to address climate change, and impact on agriculture.

There are must be efforts to promote reforestation programmes to adopt climate change impacts. This will involve restoration of vegetation cover on the degraded areas and making available forest products to communities living in the area.

Written by Magreth U. Makinge

Friday, July 9, 2010

The coming Climate Change negotiations in Mexico: African's should have common stand

His Excellency President Luiz Lula da Silva of Brazil who was on a state visit to Tanzania has argued Africa to form a common position and hold accountable highest polluters to pay the cost for global warming or else risk the extreme effects of Climate Change. He went further and said that it is wrong to continue pushing Africa to undermine their plans for development of alternative energy sources (e.g. agro-fuels). “You should go to Mexico with a common stand and tell the big polluters to pay the cost of the environmental pollution”. He stressed! This is a great support from one of the emerging and influential big economies countries. Africa has to speed up its common position/strategy on the issue of Climate Change and Global Warming on the coming UNFCC meeting which will be held on Mexico in the coming December 2010. So what to do?

It was decided by the conference that scientific findings on Climate Change in Africa should be submitted to the African political leaders to enable them to adequately negotiate at the forthcoming UNFCCC Summit in Mexico in December 2010 from a better informed and united position. This came from a review of the Copenhagen Summit held in December 2009 where the negotiations failed to get an agreement. It was noted that in Copenhagen, the political and scientific components from Africa were not working together. It was apparent that the two were negotiating in parallel. Consequently, the African scientists are duty-bound to present to the African Heads of State and Government the acquired data and knowledge on the Science of Climate Change, projections of realistic future climate scenarios, with projected impacts in, and attendant implications, over Africa.

I would like to kindly urge NASAC (Network of African Science Academies) by mid-July 2010 in consultation with other African scientists, ECA and AUC, to speed up the preparation of the 2-page Statement on Climate Change in Africa. The issue of provision of Climate Change funds and Africa’s accessibility to the Climate Change funds should be addressed in the prepared statement. Also summary of the Conference Proceedings (ECA-AU SWA II, June 2010) should be disseminates as soon as possible and we have to see to it (conference document) that it reaches all the intended destinations (governments) in Africa. A follow up is essential. NASAC, ECA and AUC should distribute the prepared 2-page Statement on Climate Change in Africa to the African governments through senior government officials for their ingestion and appropriate submission to their respective ministers, for their consumption and incorporation before heading to Mexico in December 2010. Long-term initiatives on the Science of Climate Change, Mitigation and Adaptation, and growth of sustainable green economies in Africa will be jointly coordinated by ECA and AUC in collaboration with their regional (Africa) partners. An establishment of an ECA-AU hosted Pan-African Green Technology and Innovation Centre is envisaged.

Note: This article is the result of the conversation we made with the formerly Director of ICSU-South Africa and Rapporteur of ECA-AU SWA II, June 2010, Professor Sospeter Muhongo regarding to the comments of President of Brazil on Climate change.

Stephen J Nyagonde
National Representative
Young Earth Scientist Network- Tanzania,
Internship WWF Tanzania Office,
Rubeho Environmental Action Project-REAP,
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG),
Rubeho, Mpwapwa, Dodoma,
Mobile: +255713058745, +255765111101

Threatened by uranium mining: Bahi Swamp - a life channel in central Tanzania:

Bahi wetland is situated about 50km west of Tanzania´s capital city Dodoma. This wetland is of enormous value for food security and income generation in the semi arid landscape of central Tanzania and beyond. Actually this unique natural resource is threatened by plans for uranium mining pushed forward by Tanzanian government and foreign investors. Topographically Bahi swamp is described as a closed depression. Geological faults divert as well superficial as underground water flows of the Bahi drainage basin into the swamp. Inhabitants count 8 major and 10 smaller perennial streams feeding the swamp. During years with enough rain a open water surface with a diameter of around 30km can develop and prevail for up to five years. These special conditions enable various economic activities of high importance for people’s livelihoods in generally semi-arid region:

Due to erratic rainfall patterns rainfed agriculture often fails and subsequently famines occur regularly. Irrigated paddy production in the swamp area therefore is a promising alternative. Already in 1982 FAO and USAID started to introduce advanced technologies of rainwater harvesting and rice production in the Bahi Swamp. The initial project area of 150ha was extended by farmers to more than 500ha. In 1990 IFAD supported another 150ha. Nowadays the whole area under paddy production can be guessed around? 5000ha, however exact assessment is missing. Farmers claim to harvest up to 40bags per acre. Therefore Bahi rice production is an important factor for food security in the region and beyond. Also rice farming is a good business for farmers in Bahi. They are quite well off and to some extent seem to have escaped from poverty. Fish is another important contribution for food security and income generation. Standing at the edge of Bahi

Lake one can watch dozens of traditional boats returning with tons of fish. Bahi fish is famous all over Tanzania. Local traders guess their accumulated daily turnover to? 100 Mio Sh (about € 50.000.-). Not only fishermen living adjacent to the lake take profit of Bahi fish; as fish are traveling upstream after being born in the swamp also the villages along the rivers share the blessing. For them the fish from the rivers are a vital dietary supplement as otherwise they totally depend on unreliable rainfed harvest. In some years when inappropriate rainfall patterns have destroyed harvest on the fields fish may be the only available food for people during some periods!

Typically for African semi-arid areas many people around Bahi live on cattle keeping as traditional herdsmen. For this people the swamp offers important grazing areas. In several villages on the northern edge of the swamp area people are using another chance of income generation depending on the natural resources provided by the swamp: using traditional technologies they are producing salt, which is exported until to the neighboring countries Burundi and Ruanda! Uranium mining will threaten the whole system of Bahi swamp by emissions of poisonous and radioactive gases and dust, land destruction and enormous water consumption during mining and processing. The most serious hazards however will be huge tailings dumps: processing the ore to yellow cake results in huge amounts of slurry which is usually pumped into large basins. It is not easy to imagine how such dumps can be maintained in safe manner in an area that is periodically flooded! The potentials of Bahi swamp have been assessed by some scientific studies mainly conducted by University of Dar es Salaam (Institute of Resource Assessment) and Sokoine University of Agriculture. Professor Munishi described in a presentation that irrigated paddy comprises 65% of total household grain production and contributes 59% of household income, fish maintains 10% of household food and 36% of household income. Mwakuje et al. Published a study in 2009 on use and sustainability of the swamp resources for peoples livelihoods exemplary in the two villages. However facing the current challenge of uranium mining plans it is highly necessary to assess the general contribution of Bahi swamp to food security and economy in the region and beyond by a comprehensive study which also should point out how uranium mining will affect this natural resource system.

Note: This article has been sent with our colleague Pasience Mlowe but was written by Anthony Lyamunda and Martin Kurz of CESOPE, Tanzania and, Germany respectively

Scientists should talk much on reality rather than predictions:

In October 2009, more than 350 young earth scientists (both practitioners and academicians) gathered at University of Geosciences, Beijing, China discussing different scientific challenges facing our planet earth today. The event also involves decision makers (politicians), civil society organizations and many other senior scientists from different countries all over the world. I was one among the Africans colleagues participated and leading the group of Africans young earth scientists presenting scientific findings from Africans perspective. We shared experiences from every corner of the world. Despite of accruing all those, the most thing which am so honoured is the round table session discussing how we can improve knowledge generated from sciences entitled as the “Balance between science and reality”
A lot of issues where highlighted with decision makers (politicians) and scientists regarding to the balance between reality and science. The arguments lie on different perspectives, and finally we reach on amicable conclusion. Politicians rely more on idea that different research projects come up with the findings with full of uncertain with hard language, and are not straight only contain projection and not reality. Further they continue to argue that, knowledge generated from scientific findings should be put into practice for actions and economic development. This could bring interphase between politicians and scientists. We finally agreed, we need realistic scientific findings which can help to raise GDP, stabilize economy and even creating jobs all over the world.

Stephen J Nyagonde
National Representative
Young Earth Scientist Network- Tanzania,
Internship WWF Tanzania Office,
Rubeho Environmental Action Project-REAP,
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG),
Rubeho, Mpwapwa, Dodoma,
Mobile: +255713058745, +255765111101

Real corruption undermines the future of Tanzania:

It is no an exaggeration to say that corruption jeopardizes the very future of Tanzania. It grows and eats deeper and deeper into our psyche, morality and fabric and become even more and more difficult to exorcise. It does not give hope to Tanzanians because every day we wake up with corruption while we have the Prevention of Corruption and Combating Bureau (PCCB). It continues to dismantle our country and still there is no appropriately measures have taken to stop it especially at rural areas. Corruption is not particularly unique to Tanzanians or any other developing countries. We understand it happens in every country in the world, yet other countries have found away to deal with it or limit it and it has not stopped their progress.
I am in the village called Mbuga (about 127Km from Mpwapwa town), situated in the shadow and bases of Rubeho Mountains (part of Eastern Arc Mountains) covered with the thick forests of Mafemera, Mang’alisa and Ukwiva forests. Despite of having many biodiversity and some important endemic species like Rubeho partridge (Xenoperdis obscuratta), these forests are important sources of water in two main rivers of Wami and Great Ruaha. Such a village is has got its uniqueness features, as it comprise three main places which are very popular. One of them is including the alcoholic club where almost 98% of the villagers gathered daily and drink local brew known as “dimbura” from morning until the midnight. Other places are the offices of VEO and WEO. I mentioned the aforementioned offices primarily because of corruption escalating with an alarming rate at those offices.
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) has a project of conserving environment of Rubeho Mountains through Participatory Forest Management (PFM) with the headquarter at Mbuga village. At first when I arrived at this area, I got a friend who is the field assistant within our project. We shared alot of information together especially on conservation; he informed me how illegal logging was taking place in their area before arrival of the project. However the project of TFCG has reduced such calamity, though still there is a challenge of corruption which is mainly facilitated with government leaders. It has been learnt from the field that one of the reason that is accelerating illegal timber harvesting in most of the area is poor understanding of procedures and regulations that are guiding timber and log harvesting in most of the grassroots communities. Previous months ago, I and the village environmental committee, we conducted a patrol within the forest searching pilfers conducted illegal logging. We caught eight people with the chain saw machine who had already cut down more than 20 trees with a DBH of net less than 45cm. We follow the procedure and send them to the village government for further procedures including fines. Legally all books responsible for collection of any revenues within the village government should be collected from District Executive Director (DED) office. You can’t imagine the village Executive Officer (VEO) has got his own book of collecting revenues and fines and at the end he provides normal receipt to the people. It is sad, sad and sad; village leaders are frauding government revenues. I asked them why are they doing so? They had no clear answer to me, and they have been doing that over a decade up to now. To what extent our government losses?

Myself I take it as a challenge and starting to educate the Village Environmental Committee (VEC), what procedures should be followed on collecting revenues of the forest products. I distribute by-laws and management plan guiding management of forests to them. This has changed the situation, and the rate of corruption has been reduced. What I am trying to do here is highlighting and probably impress on my fellows, what that monster called corruption is doing Tanzanians especially at rural areas. The fact remains that what we need people and leaders with strong political will and commitment to, and unafraid to avail such calamity. God bless Tanzania and we should devote much our self to save for our country. Thanks hail the idren.

Stephen J Nyagonde
National Representative
Young Earth Scientist Network- Tanzania,
Internship WWF Tanzania Office,
Rubeho Environmental Action Project-REAP,
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG),
Rubeho, Mpwapwa, Dodoma,
Mobile: +255713058745, +255765111101

Sunday, July 4, 2010

We will miss you a lot brother Mushi:

Honestly, we have remained so lonely after your departure our brother Octavian Mushi. Initially it started as a rumours that you will move out of the YET program of WWF-Tanzania programme office, and now it become the truth you’re not with us again. It is the mourning period for us, we don’t know how will it going to be without you in YET. For the short period of four months we have been together, we learned a lot of things from you which are very important in our carrier pathway. You have been a great mentor and regulator for the whole time to make sure we are delivering to the maximum level. Through your mentorship we are confident and believing that, what we have accrued will be a guiding and supportive tool to us in any working place. We are still remembering your kindness, indulgence and moral support to us. For sure your departure has created a gap and sadness within our group. It is like a pumpkin isolated within the desert, real we will miss you a lot brother. There is no way out, what we need is to confer with the situation. We have nothing to pay you rather than our prayers to God for you. We are wishing you all the best and hope if god wishes we will still continue working together. May God bless you and we are warmly welcoming you to visit us again.

Stephen J Nyagonde
National Representative
Young Earth Scientist Network- Tanzania,
Internship WWF Tanzania Office,
Rubeho Environmental Action Project-REAP,
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG),
Rubeho, Mpwapwa, Dodoma,
Mobile: +255713058745, +255765111101

Friday, July 2, 2010

Drivers of Deforestation and forest Degradation in Kibondo District:

Kibondo is one of the three districts of Kigoma region which is located (4º, 07’S, 31º, 00’E) in Northern part of the region and western part of Tanzania. According to the 2002 Tanzania National Census, the population of Kibondo District was 414,764 and is administratively divided into 20 wards. The district is bordering the neighboring country of Burundi, Kigoma and Kasulu districts in Tanzania. It covers a total land of 16,058 Km2 which is equivalent to 43.3% of total kigoma region land area. The district is covered with large woodland in the two established forest reserves. Of the total forest areas 508,672 hectares fall under open public forests. Those open forests have various valuable tree species such as Pterocarpus angolensis (Mninga), Khaya nyasica (Mkangazi), Afzelia quanzensis (Mkora), Milecea- exelsa (Mvule), and Brachystegia spiciformis (Mtundu).

The currently threats facing forest management in Kibondo district include unsustainable agriculture practices, particularly extensive shifting cultivation, illegal harvesting and trade in timber and creation of new settlements which results into fragmentation and loss of natural forests as they are converted into field. Those proximate stress are linked to higher level processes particularly poverty, in all of its multiple interrelated dimensions, including a lack of education and training opportunities, which results in a dependence on natural resource-based livelihoods. Also the district has experienced the greatest upsurge in deforestation and forest degradation over the past twenty years due to the most serious influx of refugees from Burundi, Rwanda and Democratic republic of Congo (DRC). The existing baseline data on new settlements and houses constructed by local people in Kibondo district reveal that 95% depend on forest products (poles, grasses and trees). From the national development perspective, this area represents one of the poorest districts in Tanzania and most rural livelihoods are heavily dependent upon land use and forestry resources. 97% of the population in Kibondo district depends on agriculture and district is undergoing different activities including bricks baking, and burning farms for cultivation, cooking greatly contribute to increase of greenhouses gases emissions. Generally the search of alternative sources of livelihood such as charcoal burning, illegal logging and collection of firewood has further exacerbated environmental degradation within such a district which ultimately resulted into the current climate change happening in the world.

Note: The present article is drawn from my consultant work assigned by GLIRT a non-governmental organisation, on preparing a concept note paper of REDD and submitted to Institute of Resources Assessment (IRA) of University of Dar es salaam and Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Stephen J Nyagonde
National Representative
Young Earth Scientist Network- Tanzania,
Internship WWF Tanzania Office,
Rubeho Environmental Action Project-REAP,
Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG),
Rubeho, Mpwapwa, Dodoma,
Mobile: +255713058745, +255765111101

Wednesday, June 23, 2010


It was an inspiring date when we went to learn by practice in Ngarenaro. In brief I can say it was the nice trip with other YETS which every body admired. Personally I hard a chart with Set life management especially Jacob who before anything introduced the approach they began.

They started as a group of few people leading others what to do to keep the NGARENARO River clean. They started in difficult conditions but it improved as time passed by.They now use tractor to take wastes and dispose in a right place.

Assistance was coming from the village council and resistance from the ward counsellor. The project they run is based on volunteering and self motivation, in each case they have to collect wastes and get paid very little from the household they save.

I learnt a lot from Set Life. The lesson that changes must come from us and not from wothout. It must originate from some one and shared and adopted positively and negatively at the same time with the rest. Once more self esteem and love to environment can manifest through Volunteering in each case environment can be protected even when there no donors to support the scheme.

From my experience this is the first environmental group originated from natives themselves. Set Life was no organised by CSO or any authority other than the native themselves.

It is very easy to implement a community felt project since it is a social touch and not a man made problem or Changing circumstances to problems.

There is challenge of community mobilization for changes. It is not easy to mobilize and adopt changes by the community involved. There still slums and toilets with outlet to the river. The community do not control the cabbages from their home stead as required by the group making difficult task to clean the river.

There were challenges like using old truck and other crude equipment for collecting dusts. The other challenge involved material poverty where collecting money to run the project is very difficult. Local counsel is not supporting the project in its full sense.

By Bernad Wilfred


Atomic Energy is the energy released by a nuclear reaction. It is originated in 1903 when Ernest Rutherford began to speak of possibility of atomic energy. The term was popularized by H.G Wells in phrase “splitting the atom” devised at a time prior to the discovery of nucleus. Radioactiave substances include Uranium which is found in Tanzania in Bahi District Dodoma, Namtumbo District Ruvuma, Manyoni District Singida, and Babati district Manyara.

What is Uranium? Simply Uranium can be explained as a hard, dense, malleable, ductile, silver white radioactive. Uranium metal has very high density. When finely divided it can react with cold water, In air it is coated by Uranium oxide, tarnishing rapidly. It is attacked by steam and acids. Uranium can form solids solution and inter metallic compounds with way of the metals

In Tanzania there is a law that governs Radioactive metals, and this is Atomic Energy Act, No 7 of 2003 which repealed and replaced the Protection from Radiation Act, 1983 which is Chapter 188 of Revised Edition 2002 of the Laws of Tanzania. The Atomic Energy Act, 2003 establishes the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission which seeks to regulate the safety and peaceful use of atomic energy, promote and expand the contribution of atomic energy and nuclear technology to healt and prosperity throughout United Republic of Tanzania.

Uranium has posed environmental problems in Air contamination for example in Bulgaria a shut down uranium mining is located immediately neighboring the village of Eleshnitza. It causes high radon concentration in free air. It is anticipated that 0.1 to 1 lung cancer incidences annually are caused by the mine in the 2600 residents of the village. IF at all Uranium extraction to is to commence at Bahi District and Manyoni is going to affect a population of Dodoma municipality and Singida because the distance is only 50km from Dodoma town to Chali where the proposed plant is going to be established.

Radon and dust blown by the mine’s ventilation contaminates local food grown in the area. In Bahi people cultivate rice that is exported to various regions for consumption thus it posses another threat to the population of Tanzania.

Large amount of ground water is at risk to be polluted, at Kinangali ward there is very big dam that is being used by 25 villages and very interesting when this dam dries is a source of salt that is being exported to neighboring countries of Rwanda, Burundi.

By Pasience Mlowe

Sunday, June 13, 2010


Years and years we have been singing the same old songs,

Panda mti Kata mti, Tunza Misitu, Misitu ni Uhai and so on

And yet the situation has became more critical

Right now it is said 58miln US dollar Tanzania Revenue is lost each year,

And also it is estimated illegal activities in logging has persisted from 50-90%

We have heard this even eye witnessed this depressing story

Of how our forests resources have been inhumanly expropriated and extremely exploited

By the same corrupt government officials who are supposed to be social servant

The time has come for us to arise my fellow Tanzanian of Mtakuja

Arise, arise, arise because the sun for change is shining bright

Wake up from the deep sleep and speak out, lets your voices be heard

Lets each of us proclaim the end of corruption in forest sector

And as we arise today, let’s proclaim the end of old era

Of stinking odor of corruption among our government officials

And let’s welcome new era of corruption free in logging trade

Lets all of us start by being patriotic enough to point out key corrupt officials

Who acts as brakes rather than accelerators for development.

I am speaking to you my fellow Tanzanians,

This is our problem, our lives those officials are ruining

But we still have hope that our forests resources will benefit us all

And no longer the few corrupted.

Arise Tanzania and let’s unite as one.

Let our voices be heard as one saying this is the end of corruption in logging trade

Let us proclaim,

We want transparency, good governance and patriot leaders.

Arise villagers of Mtakuja we still have hope as we unite,

If we did unite during our independence in the 1960’s

Despite having different 120 tribes, religions, culture and language

And still we stood as one, why can’t we do the same today.

Let’s arise today and say enough is enough

We have the rights to question on what’s going on.

Arise today and let it be a memorable day

5years later to remember that we stood up united

Against all those who stripped our nation and us naked

And left us shivering with cold while they are wrapped in furs.

Arise Mtakuja villagers and shout out today “United we stand the time has arrived for change”.

By Suzan Kagize, YETs 2010.


Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) has been identified as one serious approach in mitigating global climate change by reducing the levels of greenhouse gas emissions that enter our atmosphere. Today, fifteen to twenty percent of global GHG emissions are attributed to deforestation and forest degradation due to activities such as increased logging and agriculture. Many of these countries reside in the Global South, where poverty is widespread and resource exploitation is a means of livelihood security. However, if such countries can lessen their rates of forest degradation and deforestation and develop strategies to conserve forestlands, then they deserve to be financially compensated for these efforts.

theoretically, REDD have been implemented by the multinational companies like GRL which reported that is the Africa’s leading forestation company in 2008/2009 which is growing trees to generate carbon credit, bio-energy and to manufacture wood products. The record showed that 4,200 ha of new trees was planted in 2008 and indicates that the company hold more than 200,000 ha of land for future planting.

As it was counted, Tanzania has large area of forest reserve particularly in Mufindi district. Forest reserves covers a total area of 64,106 ha among which 47,416 ha are forest reserves and 16,690 ha are catchment’s forest, the total forest cover a portion of the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania that are scenic and renowned intentionally for the diversity and endemic species. The district also covers about 80,000 ha of Miyombo woodlands and 35,610 ha of grassland. (Mufindi district report)

The challenge are how do you implement REDD strategies fairly? who is actually gain from REDD? how are benefits to be shared? how do you ensure equitable compensation for forest conservation? how do you accurately measure, report and verify (MRV) carbon stocks and avoided emissions? where do the funds come from?

In theory, the concept of REDD is a climate change ‘no-brainer.' It aims to reduce potential GHG emissions, protect stored carbon, and increase future restoration opportunities. Despite the promise of this mechanism for reducing greenhouse gases but practically in a country like Tanzania with vast and valuable species of animals and plants might lead to get in problems socially, economically and environmentally as well elaborated as follows below.


* Eviction of native’s communities from their land they had always used to live and sustain their lives through practicing socio-economic activities.
* Blocking of the indigenous communities from accessing to non timber products for instance fruits and medicines.
* Food security will be a difficult question to be answered to the societies especially who depends on fertile land and grasslands which is very good for grazing cattle which is converted to tree plantation.
* Loss of land title deeds to indigenous due to land being sold to the tree plantation investors to custody it for many years likely 99 years. Theoretically if the project fails indigenous will continue to be landless for that time being.


* Food importation will be continued in Tanzania though having vast land as many people and investors will be attracted to plant more trees rather food crops production in which in long run there would be no balance of payment.
* Capital flight mainly due to the realities on investing in tree plantation which largely being dominated by foreigners who have capital enough to invest on our land than indigenous, will be benefited and paid by Redd progamme.
* Poverty will continue to prevail in Tanzania communities as far as food security would be exhibited in communities as one of the major indicator of the poverty.


* Different species of animals, birds and plants will extinct in the areas where tree plantation is going to be implemented for instance, to date some species in Mufindi district started to disappear e.g. edible plants like “Mikusu” and “Misaula” and animal species like “Mbawala” and “Digidigi” due to trees plantation done by Green resources according to Mgororo villagers which project the bad future when Redd is officially implemented as it also involve trees plantation.
* Loss of grassland areas which is very important due to its content in our ecosystem e.g. variety of beauty fauna’s, and fodder grasses since, they are areas with 1st rank for trees plantation as they are regarded as marginal lands in Tanzania
* Land degradation due to its nature of the trees plantation in monoculture to which in future will also lead to loss of fertility hence, low productivity.

Since “plantations are not forests” and due to its idea of reducing emission through deforestation and forest degradation by planting more trees. The Redd programme in long run might have problems especially to the ecosystem as natural forest saves as a habitat to insects, birds, animals and roots. Hence I recommend the following,

* Redd implementation should include fully recognition of the land use planning and the 1st prioritized people to invest for that programme should be natives and not foreigners. This will ensure Redd programme to be a non-business activity.
* Government should consider and value grassland as part and parcel of ecosystem which should be conserved. In doing so the government should have district grassland officers rather than keeping this burden to forest officers.
* Scientist works e.g. researches should be respected supported and their findings should be considered and implemented by the government instead of handling politics e.g. accepting Redd implementation without knowing its impacts.
* Cso’s should have coalition to advocate the coming and implementation of Redd progamme e.g. arguing why do they launch the program in our country and not to their home country since they are the one’s who pollute more.

To conclude, something should be noted and understood I don’t reject the implementation of Redd programme BUT i just want to see its implementation doesn’t affect the people’s economy; livelihood; and environment for instance trees plantation be directed to areas where deforestation is severely and its land is real not suitable for the agricultural uses e.g. grazing and crops production.

Written by: Yohana kadiva


Yes its very interesting to note read the article by Dambisa, actually
her patriotism doesn’t bother me at all, but the fact that she
proclaimed, is the most interesting thing in my mind, whether we agree
or not the cause of Aid in effectiveness in Africa has two dimensions
as follows

1.0 African perspective and commitment level for helping real
people in need

In this perspective, many African leaders seems to loose focus after
being elected in power by their electorates. They tends to forget
everything that they promised to full fill after being elected, they
some time use external global forces as an excuse to indulge themselves
in corruption and mis use of public resource. Their level of
accountability became minimal with the drastic increase of their
individual/selfish demands to support their private lives. How do you
expect a leader who assumed a certain position in public institution
soon became a millionaire within short time period? their actual
salaries plus all benefits are well known in advance by the public and
can not make some body to became a millionaire after being in power for
only short time of period. To me, it seems that , those kind of leaders
are effectively mis use aid and thus became as one aspect of the source
of the problem of Aid in effectiveness in Africa.

2.0 Some Self interest Donors requirement and Conditionality ones
provide aid/loan to African Countries

This aspect is real as some self interest donors from all scattered
categories in this world have their ambitious interest in African
wealth, they normaly give aid with a lot of condition taking the
advantage of starved people as a result of in appropriate technology and
techno -managerial capacity to extract their wealth in Africa. They
always influencing African countries policies that in turn regulates all
programmes and projects operation at all levels.

Some of us do remember the Structure Adjustment Programme ( SAP) in
1980s by IMF/WB where by the Tanzania Government was forced to sign the
agreement/Contract so as to qualify for a loan/aid kind of ( what ever
the name) . in this aspect you can realize the mostly negative impact of

The overall SAP exercise had dramatically increased the rates of
environmental degradation and deforestation in indebted Nations in
Africa as Governments strive hard to generate cash through collecting
Tax from all sources to pay off debts and interest as well. These
called aid/Loan whatever you may call them,have negative effect in
various sectors as well as directly to many people in African
especially poor countries like Tanzania

For example in Tanzania , the Debt repayment is six time more than
National health spending of which majority of people are suffering from
malaria, typhoid etc. Pregnant women do not access appropriate medical
treatment and later die abruptly. Hospitals have became breeding grounds
for disease.

The Overall, structural adjustment in Tanzania has increasing input
prices, promoting unsustainability through market liberalization, and
reducing expenditures on "reforestation." In addition, unrelated
sectoral policies have exacerbated degradation problems. The ending of
ujamaa, poor agricultural extension, poor enforcement of land clearing,
ambiguous land tenure, and inappropriate energy pricing have all reduced
incentives to conserve. Structural adjustment has also differentially
hurt the poorer farmers because pricing schemes have caused cultivation
of marginal lands. Thus, a positive feedback loop has been created
causing a downward spiral of economic and environmental well being.

We have been having a lots of economic reforms being in actual facts
initiated by some of self interest donors as their participation in
decision making rank is at almost 75%.

For instance Tanzania Privatization policies that led to sell of many
public institutions but little the people has been benefiting from, we
also did have Civil Service Reform Programme ( 1990s) from which , many
workers were laid off without appropriate compensation, the aim to was
to destabilize African Countries so that they continue to be dependent

We do also have Tanzania Public Service Reform Programe(1994), Local
Government Reform Programme( 1996). All these initiatives have donor
influence and they haven’t provide required results as expected to
date as people are still suffer.

You can also have a glance to our Tanzania National budget that
generally comprises at 40% of income from donor poured in our National
basket funds. This 40% does slaughter us without even say “ Bis

For instance , The Tanzania National budget preview for 2010/11
financial year as presented yesterday ( 1st July 2010) to the
Parliamentary committee for the Finance is set to raise to 11.1 trn/=
from the current 9.51trn/= with foreign aid funding nearly a half of
it, the situation like this has some implication in terms of decision
making process that mostly determine the future of the nation interims
of priorities, normally in this kind of donor dependency the country
would never and ever be free to decide their own priority issues based
on peoples wishes and demands. Suppose donor refuse to grant that nearly
half of the National budget , guess, what would happen? Some self
interest donors( NOT ALL) would take advantage on that.

In respect of the above narrated fact, its obviously that, Dambisa
analysis was very critical to the maximum as she was talking about
facts, but the problem with her is on the issues of running away from
solving African problems by condemning the existing institution
frameworks and its associated process. But all in all African problems
has been for a long time caused by selfish leaders as well as some self
interest donors ( NOT ALL) on equal basis and its upon us African people
to be alert and very creates to avoid the two changing agents interests
( Corrupt leaders and some of self interest Donors). Its better to have
commitment leaders and even few true donors for supporting our National
development for the benefit of the majority people in the grass root

Hamisi Seif Simba
Programme Coordinator for CSOs Programme
CSOs - Strengthening the Capacity for Environmental Civil Societies
WWF Tanzania Programme Office
Regent Estate 350 Mikocheni
P O Box 63117 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
t: +255 (0)22 2775346
f: +255 (0)22 2775535
m:+255 (0)718801337

WWF - for a living planet

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

PLANTATIONS ARE NOT FOREST(REDD’s impacts on Indigenous People socio-economically and Biodiversity)

Because deforestation is a major source of green house gas emissions, governments see curbing deforestation as a ‘cheap’ way of reducing green house gas emissions and stabilizing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere relatively quickly. Governments are discussing a proposal on REDD which they hope to conclude the in the near future.

Anti-pastoralist Policies are also Ant-conservation.

Pastoral societies in Tanzanian lived in harmony during pre-colonial era only. Both colonial and post colonial political systems have marginalized pastoralists in the country. Pastoralists have always been wrongly sensed as unproductive (they do not contribute to national economies), unorganized (they always ‘roam around’), and environmentally destructive (they cause overgrazing and desertification). They have been and they are still being treated as enemies of wildlife and nature conservation, despite the fact that they have been inhabited within wildlife ecosystems even before the inversion of wildlife based tourism businesses.

Greetings from Setlife-Ngarenaro

It was a rainy Saturday when 3 Arusha based YETs made a trip back to daraja mbili to assess the progress made by the Setlife group in their efforts to protect river Ngarenaro from pollution resulting from random dumping of solid waste by the slum dwellers.

We met with the group team leader at the Ngarenaro ward office and began our journey into the river and observed a few things as follows; first the trees that were planted by the YETs back in April are doing fine as most of the them are in stable condition though a couple of them have died and domestic animals are to blame according to the Setlife team leader.

Dead Aid debate among YETs in Tanzania Cont .....

Hi all

Yes its very interesting to note read the article by Dambisa, actually her patriotism doesn’t bother me at all, but the fact that she proclaimed, is the most interesting thing in my mind, whether we agree or not the cause of Aid in effectiveness in Africa has two dimensions as follows

When will WMAs deliver to the Communities?

“We conserve nature because we live in it, because it is our life, it is the life of our cattle. The conservationists [referring to NCAA] do it because it gives them employment, because they get money from the white men [tourists]. For them, if the white man does not bring money, it is the end of the story. For us, even if the white man does not bring money we will still preserve the environment. We did it before the white men came. We do because it is our lives; it is the life of our ancestors and our unborn children”. This was a statement made by one of Maasai elders when he was being interviewed by the researcher as it reads in Olenasha W. et al 2001 report. This shows the sincerity of indigenous in natural resources conservation. Perhaps if this philosophy was used in conservation we could never have a need to think of firearms in conservation, establishment of WMAs or introduction of YETs programme because we could not have the environmental and natural resource problems we have today.

Yes, Aid does work but not well enough in Africa:

Yes, aid does work, but not well enough in Africa. I think we need to discuss from that scenario and further explain much why aid has been working enough in other part of the world like Asian and not well enough in Africa? It is not true not all Aid accorded to Africa does not work, there are big successfully projects in Africa which have been funded with donors are sustainable helping a lot people of Africa.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Why should we adopt Ecotourism in Tanzania?

According to the UN Report of 2008 Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world; it is ranked 159 out of 1975 on the human development index. The need to better manage Tanzania’s economy and improve strategies in poverty alleviation is urgent needed. In recognition of that the government of Tanzania has established different numbers of economic reforms aimed to revamp its economy. Despite of this, economic growth has not yet fully translated into poverty reduction at a household level and over one third of the population still lives below the basic needs poverty line and most of the poor communities live in rural areas. The government of Tanzania has formally recognized the value of wildlife resources to the people and economy of Tanzania since her independence in 1961 when former president and father of the nation Mwalimu Julius Nyerere spoke on the need to conserve wildlife resources.

Debate about Dambisa Moyo's book continues!

Dear Thomas and others reading.
Well, this is a cluster of views on Dambisa that are fairly common among most Africans I hear view themselves on Dambisa Moyos message.
I see that you Thomas is a strong supporter of Moyos views and approach to development.
I am an equally strong critic of the lady and her views. I do not dare think what Norway would have looked like if we some 100 to 150 years ago had applied the Dambisa recipe for development. In fact, I hardly know any country that did, even though USA and UK and in Africa Gabon are fairly close to.
I wrote some 15 months ago in Norwegian a very critical review of her book and so called analyses of development. I attach it for those of you who read Norwegian.

Friday, May 28, 2010

REDD new hope for Resilience and Building of the Climate Change in Tanzania:

It is no longer debated that the world climate is still changing fast and is the most pressing issues of this generation, which cause different impacts on human beings as well as its surroundings. Increasing regional concentrations of aerosol particulates and massive consumption of carbon reservoirs which produce green house gases emissions particularly carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have been identified as the key sources of climate change happening today all over the world.

The Setbacks and Truths of Dambisa Moyo:

The Setbacks and Truths of Dambisa Moyo:
This article tends to summarize the patriotic initiative of a Zambian lady Dambisa Moyo to her lovely continent through her benevolent work addressing issue of aid dependency in Africa. She is one among of the African writers who criticize the western aid programme to Africa. Dambisa posed out strategic ways on how to find sustainable solutions to African woes. With reference to her economic expertise background, Dambisa tends to disguise her self as helper to African economy problem, as she said to her most person request is to find the economic growth of Africa which has until now remained elusive. In collaboration with Nial Furgson, they come up with a book entitled “Dead Aid” with the quotation why aid is not working in Africa and how there is another way for Africa. Her book is very special for those who truly wish to see African progress (Africans, policy makers and western broader international community). To me her enormous work makes me believing that, we Africans youth composes a huge pool of talent and energy that is not fully exploited, given an opportunity we can be an important driver of changes. It is a very important dedicative patriotic initiative to her beloved continent. But is that true? Does aid work? That is the main conspiracy factors drive me to analyze the setbacks and truth of her work.

Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Lake Victoria: A sick giant

Lake Victoria was 'discovered' in 1858 by the British explorer John Speke, after months of braving dense forests and tropical diseases in his search for the source of the Nile. But now the Lake is in poor health, and the livelihood of the communities round it is threat-ened. Nancy Chege, of the Worldwatch Institute, explains what has caused the trouble and what can be done to save the Lake. If he could see Lake Victoria today, John Speke would probably stare in shock and disbelief. The once clear, life-filled lake is murky, smelly, and choking with algae.

Exotic wildlife trade leaves forests silent

Countries across Southeast Asia are being systematically drained of wildlife to meet a booming demand for exotic pets in Europe and Japan and traditional medicine in China - posing a greater threat to many species than habitat loss or global warming.

More than 35 million animals were legally exported from the region over the past decade, according to official figures, and hundreds of millions more could have been taken illegally.

Almost half of those traded were seahorses and more than 17 million were reptiles. About one million birds and 400,000 mammals were sold, and 18 million pieces of coral.

The situation is so serious that experts have invented a new term - empty forest syndrome - to describe the gaping holes in biodiversity left behind."There's lots of forest where there are no big animals left," says Chris Shepherd of Traffic, the wildlife trade monitoring network.

"There are some forests where you don't even hear birds."Seahorses, butterflies, turtles, lizards, snakes, macaques, birds and corals are among the most common species exported from countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam.

Much of the business is controlled by criminal gangs, Shepherd says, and many of the animals end up in Europe as pets. The rarer the species, the greater the demand and the higher the price.

Collectors will happily pay several thousand pounds for a single live turtle.

Vincent Nijman, a researcher at Oxford Brookes University in England, who has investigated the trade, said: "We see species that are in fashion traded in great numbers until they are wiped out and people can't get them any more. So another one comes in, and then that is wiped out, and then another ..."

"In Asia, everybody knows the value of wildlife, so people go into the forest and, whatever they encounter, they know it has a value and that there is someone they can sell it to."

Nijman's research offers the first glimpse of the size of this widespread trade. While most people know of illegal sales of rhino horn and ivory, it's the scale of the movement of lesser-known species that is most disturbing.

He analysed 53,000 records of imports and exports from countries under Cites, the international convention that regulates the sale of wildlife.

Read this facts,Think,rethink and think again because its happening there today and tommorow its going to be here,YETS put your senses at work for the benefit of our nation !

By Mary Ngazi

Tuesday, May 11, 2010


YOUNG ENVIRONMENTALIST TRAINEE {YET} had their second module II training in Arusha at MS TCDC {Danish}. The training took ten days, where by the Young Environmentalist Trainees were able to learn many things that are important like community mobilization, communication tools, speech preparation and presentations and writing articles. While we were in the training we also had a field visit in Ngarenaro Ward. The YETs visited a SET LIFE Environmental group which is found in the ward.

SET LIFE Environmental group is a Voluntary group which was established in 2009 with eleven founding members two of them being women and the rest are men.

The group was established with aim of protecting and conserving Environment at the ward. Their works includes cleaning areas around the river, collecting wastes from households, planting trees around the river and along the road.

The group has been operating for just one year yet it has managed to do a lot on Environmental cleaning activities at Ngarenaro ward. The SET LIFE group has ensured that the areas along the river are always clean by removing garbage and making sure people are not disposing wastes at the river and also planting trees, this is made sure by working at the river three days a week.

The SET LIFE group is facing various challenges like the shortage of working facilities, shortage of funds, poor enforcement of laws, pollution from waste disposal and waste water disposal to the river, destructive animals {destroying planted trees}. Despite these challenges they have managed to move forward and has made a continous effort to make the area along Ngarenaro river and the surrounding areas clean.

The field visit was very important since YET were able to learn the following lessons:

The importance of self commitment; in any work one does he she needs to be self committed. Taking example from the SET LIFE group that has been operating just for one life year but the work done by the group worth done for almost five years due to their self commitment.
Volunteerism; Changes can be brought up by few people who are willing and committed rather than a big group which is not willing. Taking example from the group we visited in Ngarenaro despite the ward having many residents the group has only eleven members but they have done a lot of work in the ward like planting trees, cleaning the areas around the river as well as collecting garbage from households.

The other thing that we learned was to make the most out of the little thing you have rather than thinking of doing the most out of something that you do not have. Like the group we visited, despite having few facilities hoes, spade and a wheelbarrow they have managed to do a lot of works.
Further more we learned that if you want to be helped you need to help yourself; this means you should have something and then other people can just add to what you have.
Finally; despite the challenges that the group is facing it has managed to make the areas surrounding the river to be clean. This teaches us that, challenges are there to make us learn and move forward and not to make us fallback or down.

By Aselina Mwenda

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Young Environmental Activists in Tanzania on video

- We have to do something. There is time for change! This message is strong and clear from the Young Environmental Trainees – the YETs - who participate in the programme WWF and around 50 partners are running in Tanzania. Young environmentalists are trained to become environmental activists and educators at the local level.

View the video here:

The YETs are involved in a 10 month educational program on governance of natural resources in Tanzania, run by WWF and cooperating Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) with support of the Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Thursday, April 29, 2010


The mineral policies in Tanzania once called "new" are new no longer, and many of their objectives remain unattained. A decade ago, Tanzania embarked on mining sector reform, formulating a policy in 1997 and passing corresponding legislation 1998. The reform's main objective was to create an enabling environment for private investors in an industry that was previously state-controlled. Unfortunately, the goal of increasing the sector's contribution to national growth and poverty reduction has proven to be far-fetched. New reforms are underway, but the question remains, what really went wrong?

Tanzania's government has been preparing new mining legislation and the Draft Bill is now tabled (April 2010) for introduction in Parliament that would establish a new fiscal regime and legal framework to enhance the contribution of the country's mining sector. For the past ten years of implementation of the mining policy and law, the contributions of the mineral sector to the GDP reached only 2.7% despite becoming a top export earner.

Tuesday, April 20, 2010

We are all responsible in making oil good for people

Early 2009 I met a girl that changed my life; her name was Esther Kyosaba and we met in the most unlikely places – a district hospital of Buliisa in mid-western Uganda. Esther was 14 months old; she never knew her father and she had been abandoned for dead in a mud and wattle hut by her mother. After two days, the neighbors broke into the hut and rescued her, they passed her on to her polygamous grandfather who in turn abandoned her the second time to Buliisa Hospital in the care of his young wife that didn’t care much. That’s when we met.

Monday, April 19, 2010

New report on illicit financial flows

$854 Billion Removed from Africa by Illicit Financial Flows from 1970 to 2008

Hundreds of billions that could have been used for poverty alleviation and economic development lost, finds new report from Global Financial Integrity
WASHINGTON, DC - Africa lost $854 billion in illicit financial outflows from 1970 through 2008, according to a new report to be released today from Global Financial Integrity (GFI). Illicit Financial Flows from Africa: Hidden Resource for Development debuts new estimates for volume and patterns of illicit financial outflows from Africa, building upon GFI's ground-breaking 2009 report, Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002-2006, which estimated that developing countries were losing as much as $1 trillion every year in illicit outflows. The new Africa illicit flows report is expected to feature prominently at the 3rd Annual Conference of African finance ministers in Malawi, which is currently underway. "The amount of money that has been drained out of Africa-hundreds of billions decade after decade-is far in excess of the official development assistance going into African countries," said GFI director Raymond Baker. "Staunching this devastating outflow of much-needed capital is essential to achieving economic development and poverty alleviation goals in these countries."

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Illegal fishing still persists in Tanga`s coastal belt

By The Guardian Correspondent
17th April 2010

The wind was blowing towards the sea shore and the air was cool. Fishermen were busy, either filling their hurricane lamps with kerosene or loading their fishing gear onto dhows which were to set out shortly after before night fall for a fishing expedition.

YET-presentation on Youtube

A short video-introduction to the YET-programme can be viewed on Youtube here:

Wednesday, April 14, 2010


Following the inauguration of International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) in 2007 by the UN general assembly at the headquarter of UNESCO Paris, France. Youth all over the world took an initiative to support idea of IYPE and implementing its various themes by joining their hands and form a network called Young Earth Scientist (YES) network. The network comprised of young scientists (Both practitioners and academicians) working in different fields of earth sciences aged below 35 years old. YES network at first were gathered in Beijing China in the first world YES congress held at China University of Geosciences (October 25-28, 2009), addressing the key points of IYPE which are making earth science knowledge available for society and to promote the education and commitment of young generations to the earth-system science. After UN sees the successful of IYPE, the general assembly meet in Lisbon, Portugal 2009 and decide to institutionalize IYPE, and therefore YES network recognized legally as one of the implementers of the IYPE programs in different countries all over the world.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010


In Courtesy of Birdlife International May 2008, Tata Chemicals Ltd (TCL) has finally withdrawn its much discredited Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Report for the proposed Lake Natron soda ash plant. The development has been opposed by national NGO's in Tanzania, the Lake Natron Consultative Group (a consortium of 32 mainly East African NGOs), BirdLife International and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB; BirdLife in the UK), for posing serious threats to the survival of Lesser Flamingos Phoeniconaias minor and the livelihoods of local communities.