The whole world is captured with the highest stage of Development. This stage is Globalization. Globalization can be defined as rapidly increasing complex interactions between societies, cultures, economies, technologies, governance, institutions and individual world wide.
Globalization is approaching to its climax of development, the environment is completely destroyed. The situation of environment is becoming worse as globalization is attending to the climax level of development, environmental destruction increases rapidly.
All development process depend much on exploitation of natural resources, will this be stopped? This should be a question every one, every individual should ask him/herself this kind of question. Exploitation of Natural resources involves mining activities, extraction of oil, forest exploitation. (Deforestation through bad havest). All these activities are done with all nations that aim at fitting with the state of globalization at the moment.
Globalization has caused cultural change which has increased great demand of basic needs to human beings. The increase of demand for basic needs has paved a great demand of Natural resources. Natural resources satisfy the needs of human being which are food, clothing and shelter. Due to cultural change people tend to change and adopt new dressing styles which require raw materials. The demand of clothing requires raw materials that come from the environment through agriculture. For example cotton needs cultivation of large farms which involves clearing sites for cultivation these leads to deforestation.
Demand for food causes deforestation because food needs clearing farming area. Preparation of food needs fuel that can be firewood or oil. Extraction of oil causes land pollution and air pollution. It causes land pollution when oil is spoiled into soil. It causes air pollution as a result of gases emitted from burning process.Increased demand for fuel energy leads to deforestation because human beings use the fuel for cooking, burning and other domestic use.
‘‘Globalization process has posed great demand of food which has caused deforestation due to great demand of fuel. People need to eat variety of food within one meal. This varieties needs enough fuel so as to manage cooking of all types of food per meal and the only source of energy needed is charcoal which involves cutting down of tree, `` says Luhaga Makunja DONET Program Officer.
Demand for shelter cause environmental degradation because it involves clearing of areas so as to get shelter that demands timber. Timbering is one of the activities that lead to deforestation. ‘‘Due to globalization there is increased demand for better shelter. This has paved the way to increased deforestation activities through timbering for building material,” Says Luckstar Senyagwa member of Mazingira Group.
The increase of electronic Communication has lead to Environmental pollution. In Tanzania there are no established areas for damping un used electric machines eg computers, cellular phones, radio and refrigerators and many other. Decomposition results from un proper exposure of such machines may lead to air pollution through gases emission.
Nevertheless, the exploitation rates show that increases rapidly. Rapid depletion of natural resources and environment is taking its toll. Lack of comparative quantitative information preludes a thorough and accurate review of the state of natural resources and the environment. Only few examples can be given to illustrate the situation. Between 1990 and 1995, for instance, the global annual rate of deforestation was estimated to be around 20km2 one million inhabitants. For Tanzania was 124 (WB, 1999 tables 3 and 9). While Tanzania’s sustainable supply of fuel wood is estimated to be 19 million cubic meters per year. Consumption is estimated at 43 million cubic meters per year. In addition to deforestation, poor countries face a number of natural resource and environmental problems that are worth mentioning here. In Tanzania, fore example, the following situation prevails:
The extinction of some animal and plants species. Both anoniclium usambaratensis and saint paulio Mergunsi plants, for instance, have recently disappeared.The rapid deterioration of grazing land capacity. In some livestock-dependant area in Dodoma, Singida, Shinyanga and Arusha region livestock keepers now requires 12 hectares to feed one cow.Increased accumulation of sold waste in the urban areas. Only 10-20% of sold waste is treated and disposed. The rest pollutes the environment. Increased urban water pollution. 80% of urban dwellers use pit latrines and 5% have no toilet facilities of any kind Illegal trade of wild animals like chimpanzees, elephant, and zebras. Poachers also have reduced number of existing valued wild animals. These are unsustainable costs.
Nevertheless, the problem will continue and may even accelerate given the lack of government capacity to formulates policies or enact new legislation to protect natural resources and the environment, or to enforce existing legislation. What is worse is that the globalization process creates an incentive system that works against the preservation of natural resources and the environment.
Written by ANSELMO WAMI