Tuesday, September 6, 2011
WHY ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND LAWS ARE NOT EFFECTIVE IN TANZANIA
Since independent 1961 Tanzania have formulated very good environmental laws, policies and strategies such as Forest act no 14 (2002), environmental management act no 20, 2004, fisheries act no 22 of 2003, wildlife conservation act no 12 of 1974 and policies includes environmental policy of 1997, foresty policy of 1998, wildlife of 1998 and tourism policy of 1999. Not only that but also strategies for supporting sustainable implementation of such laws eg. MKUKUTA and MKURABITA in mainland MKUZA in Zanzibar. Why environmental destruction still engulfing the country? Below are the key reasons:
Poverty; data shows that the country population is 40 million where by 80% of population lives in rural and their main economic activities is agricultural especially peasant agriculture and their income per year is 25000tsh=154$.their main source of energy are wood and charcoal .this mean that the community depend on nature for their survival. Though the government is encouraging public participation in environmental conservation via environmental management act no 20 of 2004 the problems increasing rapidly due to poverty increases.
The solution of the problem is not only public participation in environmental management and conservation, what must be done is improving economic condition of the majority from 250000tshs (154$) to 5000000tshs(3079$ per year), where by at least they can afford to buy kerosene, pay bills for electricity than depending on nature totally. There must reduction in price for kerosene which is a source of fuel for majority in rural, agriculture inputs and create good market for agriculture products.
Community little knowledge in sustainable environmental conservation; the larger population they don’t have environmental education ,therefore they don’t knows where to end their farms, some believe that in catchment areas are good place to conduct agriculture activities. Other burns forest so as to get areas to graze their cattle without knowing that they are destroying their nature (environmental).
Corruption, Illegal timber hervesting, dynamite fishing and poaching are common in Tanzania due to existence of some of the government leaders who have responsibilities to supervise the resources are receiving corruption and allow people to enter in protected resources and take all the resources unsustainably example mchangani street chairman in Pemba mnazi Ngeche Mussa cited corruption as the main reason behind the increased incident of dynamite fishing on the Indian Ocean Coast. Dynamite fishing destroying ecosystem, and pollute water when killed organism decay not only that but also when fishers fish by using poisonous chemicals. (SOURCE:THE GURDIAN 21.11.2009).
Inadequate environmental entrepreneurship SKILLS such as butter fly farming, zero grazing, mushroom cultivation, beekeeping technology , most of the people living in rural areas they don’t have knowledge on mentioned options activities which are environmental friendly thus why community practices activities that are not environmental friend, such as cultivating on catchment areas, charcoal making and illegal timber harvesting and keeping large number of cattle than capacity of pastures of an area which h at the end causes environmental destruction.
“Success is compared to a ladder, no body has ever climb it with hands in pocket”
George Salum-YET 2010